Genetic diversity and population structure of Perilla frutescens collected from Korea and China based on simple sequence repeats (SSRs)
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Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. is divided into two varieties based on morphology and use. One is P. frutescens var. frutescens, which is used both as a leafy vegetable and as an oil obtained from the seeds. The other variety is P. frutescens var. crispa, a Chinese medicine or spice vegetable crop. In addition, weedy types of var. frutescens and var. crispa are occasionally grown as relict forms and are easy to find on roadsides, in waste areas and around farmers’ fields or farmhouses. SSR markers have been successfully used to examine the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivated and weedy types of Perilla in many regions.
In this study, we used 25 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 90 Perilla accessions from Korea and China.
A total of 90 accessions of Perilla were collected in Korea and China included 45 accessions from each of Korea and China. We selected 25 SSR markers representing the polymorphism of and adequately amplifying all the Perilla accessions.
A total of 153 alleles were identified, with an average of 6.12 alleles per locus. The GD level and PIC value for cultivated and weedy types of P. frutescens from China were higher than those for accessions from Korea. Weedy accessions had higher GD and PIC values than cultivated accessions. In the population structure analysis using the model-based method, the 90 Perilla accessions were divided into two main group and an admixed group based on a membership probability threshold of 0.8. Based on the distance-based unweighted pair group method with the arithmetic mean (UPGMA), all accessions were classified into four major groups with a genetic similarity of 32.8%.
Finally, the findings of this study will provide useful theoretical knowledge for further study of the population structure and genetic diversity of Perilla species and benefit Perilla crop breeding and germplasm conservation in Korea and China.
KeywordsPerilla frutescens Genetic diversity SSR marker UPGMA Population structure
This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (#2016R1D1A1B01006461), and the Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project nos. PJ014227032019 and PJ0142272019), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Dae Hyun Park declares that he has no conflict of interest. Kyu Jin Sa declares that he has no conflict of interest. Su Eun Lim declares that she has no conflict of interest. Shi Jun Ma declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ju Kyong Lee declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human subjects or animals performed by any of the above authors.
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