Association of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 null/present polymorphism with physical performance in the Korean population
Human physical performance is a highly complex phenotype that is influenced by various factors. In particular, genetic factors related to muscle fiber type, bone density, muscle performance, and metabolic processes are known to contribute in varying degrees to athlete status and physical performance in various ethnic groups. To investigate the relationship between these genetic factors and physical performances, we genotyped five genetic polymorphisms (ACE Ins/Del, ACTN3 R577X, ER-α C/T, GSTM1 null/present, and GSTT1 null/present) in 111 Korean athletes and 145 controls. We examined genotype and allele frequency differences between athletes and control groups, along with the odds ratios, using Chi square. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of differences in continuous variables between the multiple genetic polymorphisms and physical performance test results. The GSTM1 polymorphism exhibited a highly significant association in athletes (p = 0.017). Combined analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 also revealed significant differences between athletes and controls (p < 0.05). In the analysis of physical performance within athletes, the ER-α gene polymorphism was associated with the sargent jump and the side-step (p < 0.05), and the GSTM1 gene polymorphism was significantly associated with the 20 m shuttle run and sit-up (p < 0.05). Thus, our data imply that GSTM1 and ER-α gene polymorphisms were associated with physical performance in Korean athletes, although functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to elaborate upon these findings.
KeywordsAthlete Physical performance Genetic association Polymorphism Korean population
We are grateful to all volunteers for providing DNA samples. Special thanks go to Wook Kim (Dankook University) for useful and critical comments on the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
In Wook Hwang, Kicheol Kim, Bit Na Kwon, Hyung Jun Kim, Seung Hun Han, Noo Ri Lee, Eun Ji Choi, Hyun Ik Cho, Han Jun Jin declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Dankook University.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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