Genes & Genomics

, Volume 40, Issue 7, pp 747–753 | Cite as

Differential expression of primary pair-rule genes during bidirectional regeneration in Perionyx excavatus

  • Yun-Sang Yu
  • Jin-Se Kim
  • Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez
  • Tae-Wuk KimEmail author
  • Sung-Jin ChoEmail author
Research Article


The earthworm Perionyx excavatus is a species highly capable of bidirectional regeneration. Pair-rule genes are thought to have an ancestral function in arthropod segmentation. However, orthologs in annelids (i.e. Capitella teleta) do not exhibit segmental expression in the ectoderm or mesoderm. Their role in regeneration is currently unclear. Here, we report the expression profile of primary pair-rule genes (Pex-EvxA, Pex-EvxB, Pex-RuntA, Pex-RuntB, Pex-Hes1A, Pex-Hes1B, Pex-Hes4A, and Pex-Hey) found in P. excavatus using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated these genes showed variable expression during bidirectional regeneration. Six of these genes might play diverse and potentially critical roles in head and/or tail regeneration.


Pair-rule genes Perionyx excavatus Bidirectional regeneration Earthworm 



This work was supported by a Grant (CABX, No. PJ010001) from the Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program funded by Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea. This work was also supported by the research fund of Hanyang University (HY-2011-N to T.W.K), Republic of Korea.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors, Yun-Sang Yu, Jin-Se Kim, Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez, Tae-Wuk Kim, and Sung-Jin Cho, declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human subjects or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

13258_2018_683_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (193 kb)
Supplementary material 1: Fig. 1. Phylogenetic analysis of Perionyx excavatus pair-rule genes. Phylogenetic tree of pair-rule genes and related transcription factors reconstructed with Neighbor-joining method and Jones–Taylor–Thornton (JTT) model. Sequences were taken from UniProt database. Bootstrap values are results from 1000 replicates. All branches with a bootstrap value < 50 % are collapsed. a Analysis of Even-skipped homeodomain of Pex-Evx and of other Even-skipped family members with Engrailed genes as outgroup. b Analysis of Runt domain of Pex-Runt and other Runt family members with Id1 genes as outgroup. c Analysis of both bHLH and Orange domains of Pex-Hes and other Hes family members with Twist genes as outgroup. d Analysis of both bHLH and Orange domains of Pex-Hey and other Hey family members with Twist genes as outgroup. Abbreviations: Pex Perionyx excavatus, Hro Helobdella robusta, Cte Capitella telata, Lgi Lottia gigantea, Pdu Platynereis dumerilii, Iob Ilynassa obsoleta, Ttr Theromyzon trizonare, Dme Drosophila melanogaster, Tca Tribolium castaneum, Nve Nematostella vectensis, Afo Acropora formosa, Hsa Homo sapiens, Mmu Mus musculus. (PPTX 192 KB)
13258_2018_683_MOESM2_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 20 KB)


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Copyright information

© The Genetics Society of Korea and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural SciencesChungbuk National UniversityCheongjuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Life SciencesHanyang UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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