Novel mutations of CDKN1C in Japanese patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
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Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting-related human disease that is characterized by macrosomia, macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, and variable minor features. BWS is caused by several genetic/epigenetic alterations, such as loss of methylation at KvDMR1, gain of methylation at H19-DMR, paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 11, CDKN1C mutations, and structural abnormalities of chromosome 11. CDKN1C is an imprinted gene with maternal preferential expression, encoding for a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. Mutations in CDKN1C are found in 40 % of familial BWS cases with dominant maternal transmission and in ~5 % of sporadic cases. In this study, we searched for CDKN1C mutations in 37 BWS cases that had no evidence for other alterations. We found five mutations—four novel and one known—from a total of six patients. Four were maternally inherited and one was a de novo mutation. Two frame-shift mutations and one nonsense mutation abolished the QT domain, containing a PCNA-binding domain and a nuclear localization signal. Two missense mutations occurred in the CDK inhibitory domain, diminishing its inhibitory function. The above-mentioned mutations were predicted by in silico analysis to lead to loss of function; therefore, we strongly suspect that such anomalies are causative in the etiology of BWS.
KeywordsBeckwith-Wiedemann syndrome CDKN1C Gene mutation Genomic imprinting
This study was supported in part by a Grant for Research on Intractable Diseases from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, a Grant for Child Health and Development from the National Center for Child Health and Development, and a Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research and a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
Conflict of interests
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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