Genes & Genomics

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 267–273 | Cite as

Development and characterization of twenty-five new polymorphic microsatellite markers in proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)

  • Young-Il Cho
  • Jong-Wook Chung
  • Gi-An Lee
  • Kyung-Ho Ma
  • Anupam Dixit
  • Jae-Gyun Gwag
  • Yong-Jin ParkEmail author
Research Article


Millets such as proso millet have excellent nutritional properties and could become a basic resource for crop breeding programs and food diversification. In this study, 25 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and characterized through construction of an SSR-enriched library from genomic DNA of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). In total, 110 alleles were detected, with an average of 4.4 alleles per locus. Values of major allele frequency (M AF ) and expected heterozygosity (H E ) ranged from 0.36 to 0.98 (mean = 0.73) and from 0.04 to 0.74 (mean = 0.37), respectively. The mean genetic similarity coefficient was 0.3711, indicating that among 50 accessions of proso millet there was wide genetic variation. The newly developed microsatellite markers should be useful tools for assessing genetic diversity, understanding population structure, and breeding of proso millet.


Microsatellite markers Panicum miliaceum L. Proso millet SSR-enriched library 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Chang K (1968) Archeology of ancient China. Science 162: 519–526.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Dixit A, Jin MH, Chung JW, Yu JW, Chung HK, Ma KH, Park YJ and Cho EG (2005) Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Mol. Ecol. Notes 5: 736–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Geervani P and Eggum BO (1989) Nutrient composition and protein quality of minor millets. Plant Foods for Human Nutrit. 39: 201–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gwag JG, Chung JW, Chung HK, Lee JH, Ma KH, Dixit A, Park YJ, Cho EG, Kim TS and Lee SH (2006) Characterization of new microsatellite markers in mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.). Mol. Ecol. Notes 6: 1132–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Goff SA, Ricke D, Lan TH, Presting G, Wang R, Dunn M, Glazebrook J, Sessions A, Oeller P and Varma H et al. (2005) A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica). Science 296: 92–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. He GH, Meng RH, Newman M, Gao GQ, Pittman RN and Prakash CS (2003) Microsatellites as DNA markers in cultivated peanut. BMC Plant Biol. 3: 3–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Jana K and Jan M (2006) Content and quality of protein in proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) varieties. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 61: 45–49.Google Scholar
  8. Jia XP, Zhang ZB, Liu YH, Zhang CW, Shi YS, Song YC, Wang TY and Li Y (2009) Development and genetic mapping of SSR markers in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.]. Theor. Appl. Genet. 118: 821–829.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kantety RV, Rota ML, Matthews DE and Sorrells ME (2002) Data mining for simple sequence repeats in expressed sequence tags from barley, maize, rice, sorghum and wheat. Plant Mol. Biol. 48: 501–510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Karam D, Westra P, Nissen SJ, Ward SM and Figueiredo JEF (2004) Genetic diversity among proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) biotypes assessed by AFLP technique. Planta Daninha 22: 167–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim KY (2004) Developing one-step program (SSR Manager) for rapid identification of clones with SSRs and primer designing. MS thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul, the Republic of Korea.Google Scholar
  12. Lagercrantz U, Ellegren H and Andersson L (1993) The abundance of various polymorphic SSR motifs differs between plants and vertebrates. Nucl. Acids. Res. 21: 1111–1115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lágler R, Gyulai G, Humphreys M, Szabó Z, Horváth L, Bittsánszky A, Kiss J, Holly L and Heszky L (2005) Morphological and molecular analysis of common millet (P. miliaceum) cultivars compared to a DNA sample from the 15th century (Hungary). Euphytica 146: 77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu KJ and Muse SV (2005) PowerMarker: an integrated analysis environment for genetic marker analysis. Bioinformatics 21: 2128–2129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Li ZK, Yu SB, Lafitte HR, Huang L, Courtois B, Hittalmani S, Vijayakumar CHM, Liu GF, Wang GC and Shashidhar HE et al. (2003) QTL×environment interactions in rice. I. Heading date and plant height. Theor. Appl. Genet. 1108: 141–153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ma KH, Dixit A, Kim YC, Lee DY, Kim TS, Cho EG and Park YJ (2007) Development and characterization of new microsatellite markers for ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). Conserv. Genet. 8: 1507–1509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ma KH, Gwag JG, Zhao WG, Dixit A, Lee GA, Kim HH, Chung IM, Kim NS, Lee JS and Ji JJ et al. (2009) Isolation and characteristics of eight novel polymorphic microsatellite loci from the genome of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Scien. Hort. 122: 355–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Martin JH, Leonard WH and Stamp DL (1976) Principles of field crop production, 3rd edition. MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, pp. 415–429.Google Scholar
  19. Morgante M, Hanafey M and Powell W (2002) Microsatellites are preferentially associated with nonrepetitive DNA in plant genomes. Nat. Genet. 30: 194–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Morgante M and Olivieri AM (1993) PCR-amplified SSRs as markers in plant genetics. Plant J. 3: 175–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. M’Ribu HK and Hilu KW (1994) Detection of interspecific and intraspecific variation in Panicum millets through random amplified polymorphic DNA. Theor. Appl. Genet. 88: 412–416.Google Scholar
  22. Mun KH, Kim DJ, Choi HK, Gish J, Debelle F, Mudge J, Denny R, Endre G, Saurat O and Dudez AM et al. (2006) Distribution of SSRs in the genome of Medicago truncatula: aresource of genetic markers that integrate genetic and physical maps. Genetics 172: 2541–2555.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Powell W, Machray GC and Provan J (1996) Polymorphism revealed by simple sequence repeats. Trends Plant Sci. 1: 215–222.Google Scholar
  24. Rota ML, Kantety RV, Yu JK and Sorrells ME (2005) Nonrandom distribution and frequencies of genomic and EST-derived SSR markers in rice, wheat, and barley. BMC Genomics 6: 23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Schuelke M (2000) An economic method for the fluorescent labeling of PCR fragments. Nat. Biotech. 18: 233–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M and Kumar S (2007) MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24: 1596–1599.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Varshney RK, Thiel T, Stein N, Langridge P and Graner A (2002) In silico analysis on frequency and distribution of SSRs in ESTs of some cereal species. Cell Mol. Biol. Lett. 7: 537–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Weber JL (1990) Informativeness of human (dC-dA)n (dG-dT)n polymorphism. Genomics 7: 524–530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Yeh FC, Yang RC and Boyle T (1999) POPGENE Version 1.31. Microsoft Windows-based freeware for population genetic analysis. Quick User Guide. University of Alberta and Centre for International Forestry Research, Alberta, Canada, pp. 1–28.Google Scholar
  30. Zane L, Bargelloni L and Patarnello T (2002) Strategies for microsatellite isolation: a review. Mol. Ecol. 11: 1–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Genetics Society of Korea and Springer Netherlands 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young-Il Cho
    • 1
  • Jong-Wook Chung
    • 1
  • Gi-An Lee
    • 2
  • Kyung-Ho Ma
    • 2
  • Anupam Dixit
    • 3
  • Jae-Gyun Gwag
    • 2
  • Yong-Jin Park
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant Resources, College of Industrial ScienceKongju National UniversityYesanKorea
  2. 2.National Agrobiodiversity Center, National Institute of Agricultural BiotechnologyRDASuwonKorea
  3. 3.Rice DNA and Quality Testing Laboratory, Basmati Export Development FoundationSVBP University of Agriculture and TechnologyMeerutIndia

Personalised recommendations