Multiphase Experiments with at Least One Later Laboratory Phase. I. Orthogonal Designs

  • C. J. Brien
  • B. D. Harch
  • R. L. Correll
  • R. A. Bailey


The paper provides a systematic approach to designing the laboratory phase of a multiphase experiment, taking into account previous phases. General principles are outlined for experiments in which orthogonal designs can be employed. Multiphase experiments occur widely, although their multiphase nature is often not recognized. The need to randomize the material produced from the first phase in the laboratory phase is emphasized. Factor-allocation diagrams are used to depict the randomizations in a design and the use of skeleton analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) tables to evaluate their properties discussed. The methods are illustrated using a scenario and a case study. A basis for categorizing designs is suggested. This article has supplementary material online.

Key Words

Analysis of variance Experimental design Laboratory experiments Multiple randomizations Multi-phase experiments Multitiered experiments Two-phase experiments 


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Supplementary material

13253_2011_60_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (530 kb)
Web-based Supplementary Materials for Multiphase experiments with at least one later laboratory phase. I. Orthogonal designs (PDF 520 KB)


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Copyright information

© International Biometric Society 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. J. Brien
    • 1
  • B. D. Harch
    • 2
  • R. L. Correll
    • 3
  • R. A. Bailey
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Mathematics and StatisticsUniversity of South AustraliaMawson LakesAustralia
  2. 2.Ecosciences PrecinctCSIRO Sustainable Agriculture FlagshipBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Rho EnvironmentricsHighgateAustralia
  4. 4.School of Mathematical SciencesQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK

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