A Capture–Recapture Model with Double-Marking, Live and Dead Encounters, and Heterogeneity of Reporting Due to Auxiliary Mark Loss

  • C. Juillet
  • R. Choquet
  • G. Gauthier
  • R. Pradel


Capture–recapture (CR) models assume marked individuals remain at risk of capture, which may not be true if individuals lose their mark or emigrate definitively from the study area. Using a double-marking protocol, with a main and auxiliary mark, and both live encounters and dead recoveries at a large scale, partially frees CR models from this assumption. However, the auxiliary mark may fall off and its presence is often not mentioned when dead individuals are reported. We propose a new model to deal with heterogeneity of detection and uncertainty of the presence of an auxiliary mark in a multi-event framework. Our general model, based on a double-marking protocol, uses information from physical captures/recaptures, distant observations and main mark recoveries from dead animals. We applied our model to a 13-year data set of a harvested species, the Greater Snow Goose. We obtained seasonal survival estimates for adults of both sexes. Survival estimates differed between models where the presence of the auxiliary mark upon recovery was ignored versus those where the presence was accounted for. In the multi-event framework, seasonal survival estimates are no longer biased because the heterogeneity due to the presence of an auxiliary mark is accounted for in the estimation of recovery rates.

Note: An illustration of the implementation of our model in E-SURGE is available online.

Key Words

E-SURGE Mixture of information Multi-event Recoveries Tag loss 


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Supplementary material

13253_2010_35_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (120 kb)
Implementation in E-SURGE (DOC 123 KB)


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Copyright information

© International Biometric Society 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Juillet
    • 1
  • R. Choquet
    • 2
  • G. Gauthier
    • 1
  • R. Pradel
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre d’Études Nordiques and Département de BiologieUniversité Laval, Pavillon A. VachonQuébecCanada
  2. 2.Centre d’Écologie Fonctionnelle et ÉvolutiveCentre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Équipe Biométrie et Biologie des PopulationsMontpellier Cedex 5France

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