Non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring systems: current and proposed technology issues and challenges

  • Solmaz RastegarEmail author
  • Hamid GholamHosseini
  • Andrew Lowe


High blood pressure (BP) or hypertension is the single most crucial adjustable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and monitoring the arterial blood pressure (ABP) is an efficient way to detect and control the prevalence of the cardiovascular health of patients. Therefore, monitoring the regulation of BP during patients’ daily life plays a critical role in the ambulatory setting and the latest mobile health technology. In recent years, many studies have been conducted to explore the feasibility and performance of such techniques in the health care system. The ultimate aim of these studies is to find and develop an alternative to conventional BP monitoring by using cuff-less, easy-to-use, fast, and cost-effective devices for controlling and lowering the physical harm of CVDs to the human body. However, most of the current studies are at the prototype phase and face a range of issues and challenges to meet clinical standards. This review focuses on the description and analysis of the latest continuous and cuff-less methods along with their key challenges and barriers. Particularly, most advanced and standard technologies including pulse transit time (PTT), ultrasound, pulse arrival time (PAT), and machine learning are investigated. The accuracy, portability, and comfort of use of these technologies, and the ability to integrate to the wearable healthcare system are discussed. Finally, the future directions for further study are suggested.


Continuous blood pressure monitoring Cuff-less Non-invasive Pulse transit time Pulse arrival time 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Solmaz Rastegar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hamid GholamHosseini
    • 1
  • Andrew Lowe
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Engineering, Computer, and Mathematical SciencesAuckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand

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