Characterization of paraffin based breast tissue equivalent phantom using a CdTe detector pulse height analysis

  • Solen Cubukcu
  • Haluk YücelEmail author
Scientific Paper


In this study, paraffin was selected as a base material and mixed with different amounts of CaSO4·2H2O and H3BO3 compounds in order to mimic breast tissue. Slab phantoms were produced with suitable mixture ratios of the additives in the melted paraffin. Subsequently, these were characterized in terms of first half-value layer (HVL) in the mammographic X-ray range using a pulse-height spectroscopic analysis with a CdTe detector. Irradiations were performed in the energy range of 23–35 kVp under broad beam conditions from Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combinations. X-ray spectra were acquired with a CdTe detector without and with phantom material interposition in increments of 1 cm thickness and then evaluated to obtain the transmission data. The net integral areas of the spectra for the slabs were used to plot the transmission curves and these curves were fitted to the Archer model function. The results obtained for the slabs were compared with those of standard mammographic phantoms such as CIRS BR series phantoms and polymethylmethacrylate plates (PMMA). From the evaluated transmission curves, the mass attenuation coefficients and HVLs of some mixtures are close to those of the commercially available standard mammography phantoms. Results indicated that when a suitable proportion of H3BO3 and CaSO4·2H2O is added to the paraffin, the resulting material may be a good candidate for a breast tissue equivalent phantom.


Breast tissue X-ray Phantom Mammography CdTe Half value layer(HVL) 



This work was supported by TUBİTAK Project No:115S108 “Development of a tissue equivalent phantom used for quality control tests of mammography systems and its characterization by using X-ray spectroscopy”. This work is also a part of Ph.D. dissertation study of Mrs. Solen Cubukcu in Ankara University, Turkey.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Medical Physics, Institute of Nuclear SciencesAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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