Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 309–351 | Cite as

Biomechanical Behavior of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Heterograft Tissues: Characterization, Simulation, and Performance

  • Joao S. Soares
  • Kristen R. Feaver
  • Will Zhang
  • David Kamensky
  • Ankush Aggarwal
  • Michael S. SacksEmail author


The use of replacement heart valves continues to grow due to the increased prevalence of valvular heart disease resulting from an ageing population. Since bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) continue to be the preferred replacement valve, there continues to be a strong need to develop better and more reliable BHVs through and improved the general understanding of BHV failure mechanisms. The major technological hurdle for the lifespan of the BHV implant continues to be the durability of the constituent leaflet biomaterials, which if improved can lead to substantial clinical impact. In order to develop improved solutions for BHV biomaterials, it is critical to have a better understanding of the inherent biomechanical behaviors of the leaflet biomaterials, including chemical treatment technologies, the impact of repetitive mechanical loading, and the inherent failure modes. This review seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of these issues, with a focus on developing insight on the mechanisms of BHV function and failure. Additionally, this review provides a detailed summary of the computational biomechanical simulations that have been used to inform and develop a higher level of understanding of BHV tissues and their failure modes. Collectively, this information should serve as a tool not only to infer reliable and dependable prosthesis function, but also to instigate and facilitate the design of future bioprosthetic valves and clinically impact cardiology.


Bioprosthetic heart valve Heterograft Valve mechanics Constitutive modeling Mechanical testing Exogenous crosslinking Fluid structure interaction Modeling and simulation 




American Heart Association


Aortic valve


Bioprosthetic heart valve


Bovine pericardium


Extracellular matrix


Finite element




Glutaraldehyde bovine pericardium


Gluraraldehyde treatment


Linear elastic homogeneous incompressible


Micro X-ray computed tomography


Magnetic resonance images


Mitral valve


Porcine aortic valve


Phosphate buffered saline


Preferred direction


Representative volume element


Small angle light scattering


Tissue-engineered heart valve


Ultimate tensile stregth


Valvular endothelial cell


Valvular interstitial cell


Cross-preferred direction

List of symbols


Infinitesimal mass


Infinitesimal volume


Mass density

\( \varepsilon \)

Fiber uniaxial strain (in structural constitutive model)

\( \theta \)

Fiber orientation angle (in structural constitutive model)


Volume fraction of fibers (in structural constitutive model)


Left Cauchy-Green stretch tensor

\( D(\varepsilon ) \)

Fiber recruitment statistical distribution (in structural constitutive model)


Green–Lagrange strain tensor


Components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor

\( I(\theta ) \)

Angular distribution of scattered light (in SALS analysis)

\( R(\theta ) \)

Fiber angular distribution (in structural constitutive model)


Second Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensor


Components of the second Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensor

\( {\mathbf{S}}^{f} \)

Second Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensor in the fiber (in structural constitutive model)

\( S_{nn}^{f} \)

Component of the Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensor in the fiber along fiber direction (in structural constitutive model)


Stored energy function

\( w(\varepsilon ) \)

Stored energy function of fiber (in structural constitutive model)


Stored energy function of the fiber ensemble (in structural constitutive model)


Stored energy function of the matrix (in structural constitutive model)

I1, I2, I3

Principal invariants of the left Cauchy-Green stretch tensor



National Institute of Health, Award Number R01 HL119297 and R01 HL63954 to MSS. National Institute of Health, Award T32 to KRF. American Heart Association, Post Doctoral Fellowship 14POST18720037 to AA.

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to report.

Ethical Approval

No human studies were carried out by the authors for this article. No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joao S. Soares
    • 1
  • Kristen R. Feaver
    • 1
  • Will Zhang
    • 1
  • David Kamensky
    • 1
  • Ankush Aggarwal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael S. Sacks
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Cardiovascular Simulation, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, Department of Biomedical EngineeringThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.College of EngineeringSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK

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