Protein & Cell

, Volume 1, Issue 7, pp 638–655

Cancer stem cells in glioblastoma—molecular signaling and therapeutic targeting

  • Zhi Huang
  • Lin Cheng
  • Olga A. Guryanova
  • Qiulian Wu
  • Shideng Bao
Review

Abstract

Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly lethal primary brain tumors. Despite current therapeutic advances in other solid cancers, the treatment of these malignant gliomas remains essentially palliative. GBMs are extremely resistant to conventional radiation and chemotherapies. We and others have demonstrated that a highly tumorigenic subpopulation of cancer cells called GBM stem cells (GSCs) promotes therapeutic resistance. We also found that GSCs stimulate tumor angiogenesis by expressing elevated levels of VEGF and contribute to tumor growth, which has been translated into a useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of recurrent or progressive GBMs. Furthermore, stem cell-like cancer cells (cancer stem cells) have been shown to promote metastasis. Although GBMs rarely metastasize beyond the central nervous system, these highly infiltrative cancers often invade into normal brain tissues preventing surgical resection, and GSCs display an aggressive invasive phenotype. These studies suggest that targeting GSCs may effectively reduce tumor recurrence and significantly improve GBM treatment. Recent studies indicate that cancer stem cells share core signaling pathways with normal somatic or embryonic stem cells, but also display critical distinctions that provide important clues into useful therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize the current understanding and advances in glioma stem cell research, and discuss potential targeting strategies for future development of anti-GSC therapies.

Keywords

cancer stem cell glioblastoma therapeutic resistance molecular targeting tumor angiogenesis hypoxia response stem cell niche 

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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhi Huang
    • 1
  • Lin Cheng
    • 1
  • Olga A. Guryanova
    • 1
  • Qiulian Wu
    • 1
  • Shideng Bao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative MedicineLerner Research Institute, Cleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

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