Food Digestion

, Volume 3, Issue 1–3, pp 25–35 | Cite as

The Ratio of Casein to Whey Protein Impacts Yogurt Digestion In Vitro

Article

Abstract

Recent findings suggest that the form and texture of food impact appetite and food intake. For example, viscous milk beverages elicit lower food consumption when compared to less viscous beverages. Additionally, individual proteins exert different enzyme susceptibilities that can affect the digestion kinetics of protein and the liberation of satiating peptides and amino acids. The effect of yogurt composition on satiety has been studied, but mostly with regards to added fiber (inulin and guar) and/or increased amounts of protein (Lluch et al. Food Qual Prefer 21:402–409, 2010; Perrigue et al. J Am Diet Assoc 109:1862–1868, 2009); little information has been reported on the satiating effect of yogurt containing different ratios of casein and whey proteins. Yogurts with different casein to whey protein ratios (4.5:1, 2.8:1 and 1.5:1) were prepared and an in vitro digestion was performed to assess the protein disappearance and amino acid release. A significantly higher viscosity for the 1.5:1 ratio was related to a lower disintegration in the gastric phase. However, all of the ratios were similarly digested at the end of the duodenal phase. After 5 min of duodenal digestion, most of the proteins were completely digested regardless of the ratio. The viscosity at the end of each digestion step was significantly different. Ratio 2.8:1 showed a significantly higher viscosity after oral digestion, while after gastric digestion, both ratio 2.8:1 and 1.5:1 were more viscous than ratio 4.5:1. However, the three yogurt formulations reached a similar viscosity after duodenal digestion. It can be concluded that the digestion kinetics of nitrogenous compounds are influenced by the viscosity of the food matrix and therefore could impact its satiating properties.

Keywords

Yogurt Casein:whey protein ratio Rheology Microstructure In vitro digestion 

Supplementary material

13228_2012_23_MOESM1_ESM.doc (542 kb)
ESM 1DOC 541 KB

References

  1. 1.
    AOAC (2011) Official methods of analysis, 18th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, 998.905, 998.906, 991.921Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Argov N, Lemay DG, German JB (2008) Milk fat globule structure and function: nanoscience comes to milk production. Trends Food Sci Technol 19(12):617–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beaulieu M, Pouliot Y, Pouliot M (1999) Thermal aggregation of whey proteins in model solutions as affected by casein/whey protein ratios. J Food Sci 64(5):776–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bergmann JF, Chassany O, Petit A, Triki R, Caulin C, Segrestaa JM (1992) Correlation between echographic gastric emptying and appetite: influence of psyllium. Gut 33(8):1042–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boirie Y (2004) Protéines lentes, protéines rapides. Nutr Clin Metabol 18(1):25–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P, Vasson M-P, Maubois J-L, Beaufrère B (1997) Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial proteine accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(26):14930–14935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM (2006) Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91(8):2913–2919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burton-Freeman B (2000) Dietary fiber and energy regulation. J Nutr 130(2):272S–275SGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carbonaro M, Bonomi F, Iametti S, Cappelloni M, Carnovale E (1998) Aggregation of proteins in whey from raw and heat-processed milk: formation of soluble macroaggregates and nutritional consequences. Lebensm-Wiss u-Techno 31(6):522–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cota D, Proulx K, Smith KAB, Kozma SC, Thomas G, Woods SC, Seeley RJ (2006) Hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Science 312(5775):927–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cummings DE, Overduin J (2007) Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake. J Clin Invest 117(1):13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Damicz W, Dziuba J (1975) Studies on casein proteolysis. I. Enzymatic phase of casein coagulation as influenced by heat treatment of milk proteins. Milchwiss 30(7):399–405Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dannenberg F, Kessler HG (1988) Effect of denaturation of beta-lactoglobulin on texture properties of set-style nonfat Yogurt.1. Syneresis. Milchwiss 43(10):632–635Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Delzenne N, Blundell J, Brouns F, Cunningham K, De Graaf K, Erkner A, Lluch A, Mars M, Peters HPF, Westerterp-Plantenga M (2010) Gastrointestinal targets of appetite regulation in humans. Obes Rev 11(3):234–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dupont D, Mandalari G, Molle D, Jardin J, Rolet-Repecaud O, Duboz G, Leonil J, Mills CEN, Mackie AR (2010) Food processing increases casein resistance to simulated infant digestion. Mol Nutr Food Res 54(11):1677–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Famelart MH, Tomazewski J, Plot M, Pezennec S (2004) Comprehensive study of acid gelation of heated milk with model protein systems. Int Dairy J 14(4):313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guyomarc’h F, Queguiner C, Law AJ, Horne DS, Dalgleish DG (2003) Role of the soluble and micelle-bound heat-induced protein aggregates on network formation in acid skim milk gels. J Agric Food Chem 51(26):7743–7750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hall WL, Millward DJ, Long SJ, Morgan LM (2003) Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite. Br J Nutr 89(02):239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hogenkamp PS, Stafleu A, Mars M, Brunstrom JM, de Graaf C (2011) Texture, not flavor, determines expected satiation of dairy products. Appetite 57(3):635–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hooda S, Metzler-Zebeli BU, Vasanthan T, Zijlstra RT (2011) Effects of viscosity and fermentability of dietary fibre on nutrient digestibility and digesta characteristics in ileal-cannulated grower pigs. Br J Nutr 106(5):664–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Juvonen KR, Karhunen LJ, Vuori E, Lille ME, Karhu T, Jurado-Acosta A, Laaksonen DE, Mykkänen HM, Niskanen LK, Poutanen KS, Herzig K-H (2011) Structure modification of a milk protein-based model food affects postprandial intestinal peptide release and fullness in healthy young men. Br J Nutr 106(12):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Keogh MK, O’Kennedy BT (1998) Rheology of stirred yogurt as affected by added milk fat, protein and hydrocolloids. J Food Sci 63(1):108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kopf-Bolanz KA, Schwander F, Gijs M, Vergeres G, Portmann R, Egger L (2012) Validation of an in vitro digestive system for studying macronutrient decomposition in humans. J Nutr 142(2):245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lacroix M, Bon C, Bos C, Leonil J, Benamouzig R, Luengo C, Fauquant J, Tome D, Gaudichon C (2008) Ultra high temperature treatment, but not pasteurization, affects the postprandial kinetics of milk proteins in humans. J Nutr 138(12):2342–2347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Leidy HJ, Apolzan JW, Mattes RD, Campbell WW (2010) Food form and portion size affect postprandial appetite sensations and hormonal responses in healthy, nonobese, older adults. Obesity 18(2):293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lluch A, Hanet-Geisen N, Salah S, Salas-Salvadó J, L’Heureux-Bouron D, Halford JCG (2010) Short-term appetite-reducing effects of a low-fat dairy product enriched with protein and fibre. Food Qual Prefer 21(4):402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mahe S, Messing B, Thuillier F, Tome D (1991) Digestion of bovine-milk proteins in patients with a high jejunostomy. Am J Clin Nutr 54(3):534–538Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mahe S, Roos N, Benamouzig R, Davin L, Luengo C, Gagnon L, Gausserges N, Rautureau J, Tome D (1996) Gastrojejunal kinetics and the digestion of [15N]beta-lactoglobulin and casein in humans: the influence of the nature and quantity of the protein. Am J Clin Nutr 63(4):546–552Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Morand M, Guyomarc’h F, Famelart MH (2011) How to tailor heat-induced whey protein/kappa-casein complexes as a means to investigate the acid gelation of milk. Dairy Sci Technol 91(2):97–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mottar J, Bassier A, Joniau M, Baert J (1989) Effect of heat-induced association of whey proteins and casein micelles on yogurt texture. J Dairy Sci 72(9):2247–2256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mullally MM, Mehra R, FitzGerald RJ (1998) Thermal effects on the conformation and susceptibility of beta-lactoglobulin to hydrolysis by gastric and pancreatic endoproteinases. Ir J Agricult Food Res 37(1):51–60Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Parada J, Aguilera JM (2007) Food microstructure affects the bioavailability of several nutrients. J Food Sci 72(2):R21–R32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Penna ALB, Converti A, De Oliveira MN (2006) Simultaneous effects of total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature and sample temperature on the rheological properties of plain stirred yogurt. Food Technol Biotechnol 44(4):515–518Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Perkin AG, Henschel MJ, Burton H (1973) Comparison of milks processed by the direct and indirect methods of ultra-high-temperature sterilization. VI. Effects on sediment formation and clotting with enzymes. J Dairy Res 40(2):215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Perrigue MM, Monsivais P, Drewnowski A (2009) Added soluble fiber enhances the satiating power of low-energy-density liquid yogurts. J Am Diet Assoc 109(11):1862–1868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Powley TL, Phillips RJ (2004) Gastric satiation is volumetric, intestinal satiation is nutritive. Physiol Behav 82(1):69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Puvanenthiran A, Williams RPW, Augustin MA (2002) Structure and visco-elastic properties of set yoghurt with altered casein to whey protein ratios. Int Dairy J 12(4):383–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Reddy IM, Kella NKD, Kinsella JE (1988) Structural and conformational basis of the resistance of beta-lactoglobulin to peptic and chymotryptic digestion. J Agric Food Chem 36(4):737–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Remeuf F, Mohammed S, Sodini I, Tissier JP (2003) Preliminary observations on the effects of milk fortification and heating on microstructure and physical properties of stirred yogurt. Int Dairy J 13(9):773–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Singh H, Creamer LK (1993) In vitro digestibility of whey protein/k-casein complexes isolated from heated concentrated milk. J Food Sci 58(2):299–302Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Soukoulis C, Panagiotidis P, Koureli R, Tzia C (2007) Industrial yogurt manufacture: monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality. J Dairy Sci 90(6):2641–2654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Turgeon SL, Rioux L-E (2011) Food matrix impact on macronutrients nutritional properties. Food Hydrocol 25(8):1915–1924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vasbinder AJ, van de Velde F, de Kruif CG (2004) Gelation of casein–whey protein mixtures. J Dairy Sci 87(5):1167–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Versantvoort CHM, Oomen AG, Van de Kamp E, Rompelberg CJM, Sips AJAM (2005) Applicability of an in vitro digestion model in assessing the bioaccessibility of mycotoxins from food. Food Chem Toxicol 43(1):31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ, Regan MM, McDermott JM, Tsay RH, Breu JJ (2003) Effects of normal meals rich in carbohydrates or proteins on plasma tryptophan and tyrosine ratios. Am J Clin Nutr 77(1):128–132Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zijlstra N, Mars M, de Wijk RA, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, de Graaf C (2008) The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake. Int J Obes 32(4):676–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zúñiga RN, Tolkach A, Kulozik U, Aguilera JM (2010) Kinetics of formation and physicochemical characterization of thermally-induced β-lactoglobulin aggregates. J Food Sci 75(5):E261–E268CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.STELA Dairy Research Group, Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (INAF)Laval UniversityQuebec CityCanada

Personalised recommendations