Food Digestion

, Volume 3, Issue 1–3, pp 36–45 | Cite as

Encapsulation of Tea Polyphenols in Nanoliposomes Prepared with Milk Phospholipids and Their Effect on the Viability of HT-29 Human Carcinoma Cells



Liposomes are phospholipid bilayer vesicles often employed to encapsulate bioactive molecules. In spite of their widespread use in cosmetics and pharmaceutics, their application in food systems is still limited. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of liposomal dispersions prepared from milk phospholipids using high-pressure homogenization to encapsulate and deliver a tea polyphenol extract. It was hypothesized that the encapsulation may improve the delivery of the biomolecules to an intestinal cell model. In addition to their physical characterization, the influence of encapsulated tea polyphenols on the viability of adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 was compared to that of free polyphenols. Encapsulated polyphenols caused a lower extent of growth inhibition compared to free polyphenols, suggesting that liposomes act as loaded reservoirs that slowly release the bioactive compound in the medium. Liposomes were also prepared using soy phospholipids, and their delivery was compared to that of milk phospholipid liposomes. Although both vesicles showed high bioefficacy and delivery of polyphenols, there were differences in their behavior. It was concluded that milk phospholipids could represent an alternative source to soy phospholipids for preparation of liposomes and that the differences in composition and charge may allow us to further fine tune the cellular uptake of the bioactive.


Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) liposomes Soy liposomes HT-29 Tea polyphenols High-pressure homogenization Viability 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) under the “Food and Health” program.


  1. 1.
    Fang Z, Bhandari B (2010) Encapsulation of polyphenols—a review. Trends Food Sci Tech 21:510–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siddiqui IA, Adhami VM, Bharali DJ, Hafeez BB, Asim M, Khwaya SI, Ahmad N, Cui H, Mousa SA, Mukhtar H (2009) Introducing nanochemoprevention as a novel approach for cancer control: proof of principle with green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Cancer Res 69:1712–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sahu A, Kasoju N, Bora U (2008) Fluorescence study of the curcumin–casein micelle complexation and its application as a drug nanocarrier to cancer cells. Biomacromolecules 9:2905–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kouchakzadeh H, Shojaosadati S, Maghsoudi A, Farahani EV (2010) Optimization of pegylation conditions for BSA nanoparticles using response surface methodology. AAPS PharmSciTech 11:1206–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yang CS, Wang Z (1993) Tea and cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:1038–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dryden WG, Ming S, Craig MC (2006) Polyphenols and gastrointestinal diseases. Curr Opin Gastroen 22:165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hong WK, Sporn MB (1997) Recent advances in chemoprevention of cancer. Science 278:1073–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saura-Calixto F, Serrano J, Goni I (2007) Intake and bioaccessibility of total polyphenols in a whole diet. Food Chem 101:492–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Papadopoulou A, Richard AF (2004) Characterization of the protein–polyphenol interactions. Trends Food Sci Technol 15:186–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang SC, Sang S, Lambert DJ, Lee MJ (2008) Bioavailability issues in studying the health effects of plant polyphenolic compounds. Mol Nutr Food Res 52:139–151Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Catterall F, King LJ, Clifford MN, Ioannides C (2003) Bioavailability of dietary doses of 3H-labelled tea antioxidants (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in rat. Xenobiotica 33:743–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fang J, Hung C, Hwang T, Huang Y (2005) Physicochemical characteristics and in vivo deposition of liposome-encapsulated tea catechins by topical and intratumor administrations. J Drug Target 13:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fang J, Lee W, Shen S, Huang Y (2006) Effect of liposome encapsulation on their accumulation in basal cell carcinomas. J Dermatol Sci 42:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Narayanan NK, Nargi D, Randolph C, Narayanan BA (2009) Liposome encapsulation of curcumin and resveratrol in combination reduces prostate cancer incidence in PTEN knockout mice. Int J Cancer 125:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thompson AK, Couchoud A, Singh H (2009) Comparison of hydrophobic and hydrophilic encapsulation using liposomes prepared from milk fat globule-derived phospholipids and soya phospholipids. Dairy Sci Technol 89:99–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thompson AK, Haisman D, Singh H (2006) Physical stability of liposomes prepared from milk fat globule membrane and soya phospholipids. J Agric Food Chem 54:6390–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Spitsberg VL (2005) Invited review: bovine milk fat globule membrane as a potential nutraceutical. J Dairy Sci 88:2289–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berrocal MC, Buján J, García-Honduvilla N, Abeger A (2000) Comparison of the effects of dimyristoyl and soya phosphatidylcholine liposomes on human fibroblasts. Drug Delivery 7:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saltan N, Kutlu HM, Hür D, İşcan A, Say R (2011) Interaction of cancer cells with magnetic nanoparticles modified by methacrylamido-folic acid. Int J Nanomedicine 6:477–484Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee K, Hong K, Papahadjopoulos D (1992) Recognition of liposomes by cells: in vitro binding and endocytosis mediated by specific lipids headgroups and surface charge density. Biochim Biophys Acta 1103:185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Düzgüneş N, Nir S (1999) Mechanisms and kinetics of liposome–cell interactions. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 40:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lian T, Ho RJY (2001) Trends and developments in liposome drug delivery systems. J Pharm Sci 90:667–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hillaireau H, Couvreur P (2009) Nanocarriers’ entry into the cell: relevance to drug delivery. Cell Mol Life Sci 66:2873–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nakayama T, Hashimoto T, Kajiya K, Kumazawa S (2000) Affinity of polyphenols for lipid bilayers. BioFactors 13:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ikigai H, Nakae T, Hara Y, Shimamura T (1993) Bactericidal catechins damage the lipid bilayer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1147:132–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Socaciu C, Jessel R, Dieh AH (2000) Competitive carotenoid and cholesterol incorporation into liposomes: effects on membrane phase transition, fluidity, polarity and anisotropy. Chem Phys Lipids 106:79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tsuchiya H, Tanaka T, Nagayama M (2008) Antiproliferative effects associated with membrane lipid interactions of green tea catechins. J Health Sci 54:576–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37:911–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Smedes F, Thomasen TK (1996) Evaluation of Bligh & Dyer lipid determination method. Mar Pollut Bull 32:681–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ferruzzi MG, Green RJ (2006) Analysis of catechins from milk-tea beverages by enzyme assisted extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography. Food Chem 99:484–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gibis M, Vogt E, Weiss J (2012) Encapsulation of polyphenolic grape seed extract in polymer-coated liposomes. Food Funct 3:246–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Taylor TM, Weiss J, Davidson PM, Bruce BD (2005) Liposomal nanocapsules in food science and agriculture. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 45:587–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gabizon A, Papahadjopoulos D (1992) The role of surface charge and hydrophilic groups on liposome clearance in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta 1103:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Taylor TM, Gaysinsky S, Davidson PM, Bruce BD, Weiss J (2007) Characterization of antimicrobial-bearing liposomes by ζ-potential, vesicle size, and encapsulation efficiency. Food Biophys 2:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Thompson A, Hindmarsh J, Haisman D, Rades T, Singh H (2006) Comparison of the structure and properties of liposomes prepared from milk fat globule membrane and soya phospholipids. J Agr Food Chem 54:3704–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chen L, Remondetto GE, Subirade M (2006) Food protein-based materials as nutraceutical delivery systems. Trends Food Sci Tech 17:272–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Venkatesan P, Pudava N, Dash R, Prashanth Kumar BN, Sarkar D, Azab B, Pathak A, Kundu SC, Fisher PB, Mandal M (2011) The potential of celecoxib-loaded hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposite for the treatment of colon cancer. Biomaterials 32:3794–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lasic DD (1995) Applications of liposomes. In: Hoff AJ (ed) Structure and dynamics of membranes, handbook of biological physics, vol 1. Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, pp 491–519Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tyrrell DA, Heath TD, Colley CM, Ryman BE (1976) New aspects of liposomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 457:259–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Taylor TM, Bruce BD, Weiss J, Davidson PM (2008) Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 inhibition in vitro by liposome-encapsulated nisin and ethylene diamintetracetic acid. J Food Safety 28:183–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Taylor TM, Davidson PM, Bruce BD, Weiss J (2005) Ultrasonic spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry of liposomal-encapsulated nisin. J Agric Food Chem 53:8722–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kirjavainen M, Urtti A, Valjakka-Koskela R, Kiesvaara J, Mönkkönen J (1999) Liposome-skin interactions and their effects on skin permeation of drugs. Eur J Pharm Sci 7:279–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fang YY, Hwang TL, Fang CL (2006) Enhancement of the transdermal delivery of catechins by liposomes incorporating anionic surfactants and ethanol. Int J Pharm 310:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • İbrahim Gülseren
    • 1
  • Anilda Guri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Milena Corredig
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Canadian Research Institute for Food SafetyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations