Fungal Diversity

, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 17–83 | Cite as

Overview of Stachybotrys (Memnoniella) and current species status

  • Yong Wang
  • Kevin D. Hyde
  • Eric H. C. McKenzie
  • Yu-Lan Jiang
  • De-Wei LiEmail author
  • De-Gang Zhao


Stachybotrys (asexual Hypocreales) has a worldwide distribution. This genus inhabits substrates rich in cellulose and is closely related to Memnoniella. Classification of species has previously been based on morphology, with conidial characters being considered as important. This study re-evaluates Stachybotrys and Memnoniella, which is shown to include at least seven species-groups; while Memnoniella is a synonym of Stachybotrys. The sexual genera Ornatispora and Melanopsamma are also synonyms of Stachybotrys. With the exception of Stachybotrys subsimplex, species formed a well-supported monophyletic group in LSU data analysis belonging to Stachybotriaceae. Seventy-four accepted Stachybotrys species are discussed, while eight species are considered to belong to other genera or are doubtful in this paper and a key to these species provided. Twelve new combinations and 1 nomina nova is proposed. The status of Stachybotrys species on health, as human or animal pathogens, in indoor environments, and use as biocontrol agents and compound discovery are also discussed.


Current species Nomen excludendum Phylogeny Synonyms Taxonomic history 



Authors are appreciative to Dr. John Haines for allowing us access to type specimen of Stachybotrys elongata. The authors are also very grateful to Drs. Walter Gams, Rafael F. Castañeda Ruíz, Hongxin Mao, Weidong Wu, and Ariunaa Jalsrai for their assistance in finding literatures, especially the ones in Japan, Russia, and Ukraine. Without their assistance some references would not be available to us. This project was supported by the International Scientific Cooperated Project of Guizhou Province (No [2013]7004).

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© School of Science 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kevin D. Hyde
    • 3
  • Eric H. C. McKenzie
    • 4
  • Yu-Lan Jiang
    • 2
  • De-Wei Li
    • 5
    Email author
  • De-Gang Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.Guizhou Key Laboratory Agro-BioengineeringGuizhou UniversityGuiyang, GuizhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Plant Pathology, College of AgricultureGuizhou UniversityGuiyang, GuizhouChina
  3. 3.Institute of Excellence in Fungal Research, School of ScienceMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  4. 4.Landcare ResearchAucklandNew Zealand
  5. 5.Valley LaboratoryThe Connecticut Agricultural Experiment StationWindsorUSA

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