Fungal Diversity

, Volume 68, Issue 1, pp 159–238 | Cite as

Revision of Phaeosphaeriaceae

  • Rungtiwa Phookamsak
  • Jian-Kui Liu
  • Eric H. C. McKenzie
  • Dimuthu S. Manamgoda
  • Hiran Ariyawansa
  • Kasun M. Thambugala
  • Dong-Qin Dai
  • Erio Camporesi
  • Ekachai Chukeatirote
  • Nalin N. Wijayawardene
  • Ali H. Bahkali
  • Peter E. Mortimer
  • Jian-Chu Xu
  • Kevin D. HydeEmail author


Phaeosphaeriaceae is a large and important family in the order Pleosporales which includes economically important plant pathogens. Species may also be endophytes or saprobes on plant hosts, especially on monocotyledons (e.g., Cannaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae); some species have also been reported on dicotyledons. The family previously accommodated 35 sexual and asexual genera and comprised more than 300 species with a range of morphological characters. The morphological characters of taxa in this family are often ambiguous and can be confused with other taxa in Leptosphaeriaceae and Montagnulaceae. Fourteen specimens of the type genera of Phaeosphaeriaceae were loaned from herbaria worldwide and were re-examined and illustrated. Fresh collections were obtained from Italy and Thailand, characterized, examined, isolated into pure culture and used to obtain molecular data. The asexual state was induced where possible on sterile bamboo pieces placed on water agar. Multigene phylogenetic analyses of ITS, LSU, SSU, RPB2 and TEF1 sequence datasets were carried out using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis. Molecular analyses shows that 21 genera (Amarenomyces, Ampelomyces, Chaetosphaeronema, Dematiopleospora, Entodesmium, Loratospora, Neosetophoma, Neostagonospora, Nodulosphaeria, Ophiobolus, Ophiosphaerella, Paraphoma, Parastagonospora, Phaeosphaeria, Phaeosphaeriopsis, Sclerostagonospora, Setomelanomma, Setophoma, Vrystaatia, Wojnowicia and Xenoseptoria) belong in Phaeosphaeriaceae, while seven genera (Amarenographium, Bricookea, Dothideopsella, Eudarluca, Phaeostagonospora, Scolecosporiella and Tiarospora) are included based on morphological data. Amarenomyces is reinstated and Nodulosphaeria is confirmed in Phaeosphaeriaceae. Eudarluca is distinguished from Sphaerellopsis based on its morphological characters and is typical of Phaeosphaeriaceae. ITS gene phylogenetic analysis indicates that Sphaerellopsis belongs to Leptosphaeriaceae. Ophiobolus species form a clade within Phaeosphaeriaceae while Ophiosphaerella is shown to be polyphyletic. Phaeosphaeria sensu stricto is redefined. Two new species of Phaeosphaeria and one of Phaeosphaeriopsis are introduced while the asexual states of Phaeosphaeria chiangraina and Phaeosphaeriopsis dracaenicola are reported. Scolicosporium minkeviciusii forms a sister clade with Neostagonospora and Parastagonospora in Phaeosphaeriaceae. However, Scolicosporium minkeviciusii is not the type species. Thus, the placement of Scolicosporium sensu stricto in Phaeosphaeriaceae is questionable. Phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS and LSU genes, confirm the placement of Septoriella oudemansii in Phaeosphaeriaceae. However, it is not represented by the generic type, thus the placement of Septoriella is questionable. Setophaeosphaeria is excluded from Phaeosphariaceae as the type species, Sp. hemerocallidis forms a clade at the base of Cucurbitariaceae. Wilmia clusters in Didymosphaeriaceae and is synonymized under Letendraea. Barria, Chaetoplea, Hadrospora, Lautitia, Metameris, Mixtura and Pleoseptum are excluded from Phaeosphaeriaceae based on their morphological characters. The asexual genera Mycopappus and Xenostigmina are excluded from this family based on the phylogenetic evidence; these genera form a clade close to Melanommataceae.


Asexual state Didymosphaeriaceae Montagnulaceae Phaeosphaeria Phylogeny Pleosporales Taxonomy 



The Royal Golden Jubilee Ph. D. Program (PHD/0090/2551) under Thailand Research Fund, Humidtropics, a CGIAR Research Program that aims to develop new opportunities for improved livelihoods in a sustainable environment and Mae Fah Luang University (grant for study Dothideomycetes No. 56101020032) are gratefully thanked for partially funding this work. KD Hyde acknowledges The Chinese Academy of Sciences, project number 2013T2S0030, for the award of Visiting Professorship for Senior International Scientists at Kunming Institute of Botany. Wen Jing Li and International Fungal Research & Development Centre, Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Ruvishika S. Jayawardena and Institute of Plant and Environment Protection, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences; Jun-Bo Yang and Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center in Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, Kunming Institute of Botany are gratefully thanked for the molecular laboratory support. The curators from BPI, BR, NY, S, and UB herbaria are gratefully thanked for loaning specimens and type information. Amy Y. Rossman, Chatsachee Chatpapamon, Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe, Dhanushka Udayanga, E. B. Gareth Jones, Joanne E. Taylor, Saowanee Wikee, Saranyaphat Boonme and Supalak Yacharoen are gratefully thanked for taxonomic literature information, cultures preparation and general assistance.

Supplementary material

13225_2014_308_MOESM1_ESM.docx (35 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 34 kb)


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Copyright information

© School of Science 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rungtiwa Phookamsak
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jian-Kui Liu
    • 3
    • 4
  • Eric H. C. McKenzie
    • 9
  • Dimuthu S. Manamgoda
    • 3
    • 4
  • Hiran Ariyawansa
    • 3
    • 4
  • Kasun M. Thambugala
    • 3
    • 4
  • Dong-Qin Dai
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Erio Camporesi
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  • Ekachai Chukeatirote
    • 3
    • 4
  • Nalin N. Wijayawardene
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ali H. Bahkali
    • 5
  • Peter E. Mortimer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jian-Chu Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kevin D. Hyde
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.World Agroforestry Centre, East and Central AsiaKunmingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of ScienceMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  4. 4.Institute of Excellence in Fungal ResearchMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  5. 5.College of Science, Botany and Microbiology DepartmentKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.A.M.B. Gruppo Micologico Forlivese “Antonio Cicognani”ForlìItaly
  7. 7.A.M.B. Circolo Micologico “Giovanni Carini”BresciaItaly
  8. 8.Società per gli Studi Naturalistici della RomagnaBagnacavalloItaly
  9. 9.Manaaki Whenua Landcare ResearchAucklandNew Zealand

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