Fungal Diversity

, Volume 70, Issue 1, pp 85–99 | Cite as

Contrasting soil fungal communities in Mediterranean pine forests subjected to different wildfire frequencies

  • Erika Buscardo
  • Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría
  • Helena Freitas
  • Paolo De Angelis
  • João Santos Pereira
  • Ludo A. H. Muller


Mediterranean forest ecosystems are characterized by various vascular plant groups with their associated mycorrhizae and free living soil fungi with various ecological functions. Fire plays a major role in Mediterranean ecosystem dynamics and impacts both above- and below-ground community structure and functioning. However, studies on the effects induced by altered disturbance regimes (associated with recent land use and climate extremes) on fire ecology and especially on its below-ground impacts are few. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different wildfire regimes on soil fungal community structure using two different molecular methods. We investigated the long-term effects of wildfire on soil fungal communities associated with Pinus pinaster forests in central Portugal, by comparing the results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based profiling with those obtained with 454 pyrosequencing. Four forest stands with differing fire history and fire return interval, and vegetation cover (mature forest, early successional stage of pine regeneration, and forest converted to scrubland) were sampled 6 years after the last fire event. The pyrosequencing-based approach indicated ca. eight-fold higher numbers of taxa than DGGE. However, fungal community fingerprinting data obtained for the different study stands with DGGE were congruent with those obtained with pyrosequencing. Both short (7.6 years) and long (24 years) fire return intervals (indicated by the presence of ericaceous shrubs in the understorey) induced a decrease in the abundance ratio between basidiomycetes and ascomycetes and appeared to reduce the frequency of ectomycorrhizal fungal species and saprophytes. Wildfire significantly reduced the frequency of late stage successional taxa (e.g. Atheliaceae and Cantharellales) and known or putative saprophytes belonging to the Clavulinaceae and the Archaeorhizomycetaceae. Conversely, early successional fungal species belonging to the Thelephoraceae were favoured by both fire return intervals, while the abundance of Cortinarius and Hebeloma, which include several Cistus-specific species, increased with short wildfire return intervals. This last finding highlights the relationship between post-fire vegetation composition and cover (vegetation successional stage), and fungal symbionts. We hypothesise that these changes could, in the long term, exhaust the resilience of Mediterranean pine forest vegetation and associated soil fungal communities by preventing pine regeneration.


454 Pyrosequencing DGGE Wildfire frequency Soil fungal community Maritime pine 



We would like to thank the Associação de Produtores Florestais e Agrícolas of the council of Proença-a-Nova for providing access to their land. Research was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) through a Ph.D. grant for E.B. (SFRH/BD/21730/2005). Figure 1 is courtesy of the Integration and Application Network, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science ( We also thank the editor, two anonymous reviewers and Laszlo Nagy for carefully reading the manuscript and for their valuable comments.

Supplementary material

13225_2014_294_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1546 kb)
13225_2014_294_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (248 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 248 kb)
13225_2014_294_MOESM3_ESM.fasta (427 kb)
ESM 3 (FASTA 426 kb)


  1. Allen EB, Allen MF, Egerton-Warburton L, Corkidi L, Gómez-Pompa A (2003) Impacts of early- and late-seral mycorrhizae during restoration in seasonal tropical forest, Mexico. Ecol Appl 13:1701–1717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amend AS, Seifert KA, Bruns TD (2010) Quantifying microbial communities with 454 pyrosequencing: does read abundance count? Mol Ecol 19:5555–5565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson IC, Campbell CD, Prosser JI (2003) Potential bias of fungal 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction primers for estimating fungal biodiversity in soil. Environ Microbiol 5:36–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson IC, Bastias BA, Genney DR, Parkin PI, Cairney JWG (2007) Basidiomycete fungal communities in Australian sclerophyll forest soil are altered by repeated prescribed burning. Mycol Res 3:482–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baar J, Horton TR, Kretzer AM, Bruns TD (1999) Mycorrhizal colonization of Pinus muricata from resistant propagules after a stand-replacing fire. New Phytol 143:409–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bååth E, Frostegård A, Pennanen T, Fritze H (1995) Microbial community structure and pH response in relation to soil organic matter quality in wood-ash fertilized, clear-cut or burned coniferous forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 27:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bárcenas-Moreno G, García-Orenes F, Mataix-Solera J, Mataix-Beneyto J, Bååth E (2011) Soil microbial recolonisation after a fire in a Mediterranean forest. Biol Fertil Soils 47:261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bardgett R, Wardle DA (2010) Above-ground-below-ground linkages: biotic interactions, ecosystem processes, and global change. Oxford series in Ecology and Evolution. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Bastias BA, Huang ZQ, Blumfield T, Zhihong X, Cairney JWG (2006a) Influence of repeated prescribed burning on the soil fungal community in an eastern Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Soil Biol Biochem 38:3492–3501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bastias BA, Xu Z, Cairney JWG (2006b) Influence of long-term repeated prescribed burning on mycelial communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 172:149–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bellgard SE, Whelan RJ, Muston RM (1994) The impact of wildfire on vesicular-arbuscural mycorrhizal fungi and their potential to influence the re-establishment of post-fire plant communities. Mycorrhiza 4:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc Ser B Methodol 57:289–300Google Scholar
  13. Bettucci L, Alonso R (1995) The effects of wildfire on the opportunistic decomposer fungal community of an Uruguayan Eucalyptus spp. forest. Pedobiologia 39:470–480Google Scholar
  14. Brown SP, Callaham MA Jr, Oliver AK, Jumpponen A (2013) Deep Ion Torrent sequencing identifies soil fungal community shifts after frequent prescribed fires in a southeastern US forest ecosystem. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 86:557–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buée M, Reich M, Murat C, Morin E, Nilsson RH, Uroz S (2009) 454 Pyrosequencing analyses of forest soils reveal an unexpectedly high fungal diversity. New Phytol 184:449–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buscardo E, Rodríguez-Echeverría S, Martín MP, De Angelis P, Pereira JS, Freitas H (2010) Impact of wildfire return interval on the ectomycorrhizal resistant propagules communities of a Mediterranean open forest. Fungal Biol 114:628–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buscardo E, Freitas H, Pereira JS, De Angelis P (2011) Common environmental factors explain both ectomycorrhizal species diversity and pine regeneration variability in a post-fire Mediterranean forest. Mycorrhiza 21:549–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buscardo E, Rodríguez-Echeverría S, Barrico L, García MÁ, Freitas H, Martín MP, De Angelis P, Muller LAH (2012) Is the potential for the formation of common mycorrhizal networks influenced by fire frequency? Soil Biol Biochem 46:136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Certini G (2005) Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia 143:1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chao A, Chazdon RL, Colwell RK, Shen T-J (2005) A new statistical approach for assessing similarity of species composition with incidence and abundance data. Ecol Lett 8:148–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cleary DFR, Smalla K, Mendonça-Hagler LCS, Gomes NCM (2012) Assessment of variation in bacterial composition among microhabitats in a mangrove environment using DGGE fingerprints and barcoded pyrosequencing. PLoS ONE 7:e29380PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Comandini O, Contu M, Rinaldi AC (2006) An overview of Cistus ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 16:381–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Román M, De Miguel AM (2005) Post-fire, seasonal and annual dynamics of the ectomycorrhizal community in a Quercus ilex L. forest over a 3-year period. Mycorrhiza 15:471–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DeBano LF, Neary DG, Ffolliott PF (1998) Fire effects on ecosystems. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Dickie IA (2010) Insidious effects of sequencing errors on perceived diversity in molecular surveys. New Phytol 188:916–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dowd SE, Sun Y, Secor PR, Rhoads DD, Wolcott BM, James GA, Wolcott RD (2008) Survey of bacterial diversity in chronic wounds using Pyrosequencing, DGGE, and full ribosome shotgun sequencing. BMC Microbiol 8:43PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Edgar RC, Haas BJ, Clemente JC, Quince C, Knight R (2011) UCHIME improves sensitivity and speed of chimera detection. Bioinformatics 27:2194–2200PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ercolini D (2004) PCR-DGGE fingerprinting: novel strategies for detection of microbes in food. J Microbiol Methods 56:297–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gardes M, Bruns TD (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes - application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol Ecol 2:113–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grelet G-A, Johnson M, Vrålstad T, Alexander IJ, Anderson IC (2010) New insights into the mycorrhizal Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate: spatial structure and co-colonization of ectomycorrhizal and ericoid roots. New Phytol 188:210–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grogan P, Baar J, Bruns TD (2000) Below-ground ectomycorrhizal structure in a recently burned bishop pine forest. J Ecol 88:1051–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
  33. Hamady M, Walker JJ, Harris JK, Gold NJ, Knight R (2008) Error-correcting barcoded primers for pyrosequencing hundreds of samples in multiplex. Nat Methods 5:235–237PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hambleton S, Seifert KA, Nickerson NL (2005) Leohumicola, a new genus of heat-resistant hyphomycetes. Stud Mycol 53:29–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hart SC, Classen AT, Wright RJ (2005a) Long-term interval burning alters fine root and mycorrhizal dynamics in a ponderosa pine forest. J Appl Ecol 42:752–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hart SC, DeLuca TH, Newman GS, MacKenzie MD, Boyle SI (2005b) Post-fire vegetative dynamics as drivers of microbial community structure and function in forest soils. For Ecol Manag 220:166–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Holden SR, Gutierrez A, Treseder KK (2013) Changes in soil fungal communities, extracellular enzyme activities, and litter decomposition across a fire chronosequence in Alaskan boreal forests. Ecosystems 16:34–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Houbraken J, Spierenburg H, Frisvad JC (2012) Rasamsonia, a new genus comprising thermotolerant and thermophilic Talaromyces and Geosmithia species. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 101:403–421PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hughes JB, Hellmann JJ, Richetts TH, Bohannan BJM (2001) Counting the uncountable: statistical approaches to estimating microbial diversity. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4399–4406PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hughes KW, Petersen RH, Lickey EB (2009) Using heterozygosity to estimate a percentage DNA sequence similarity for environmental species’ delimitation across basidiomycete fungi. New Phytol 182:795–798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jumpponen A, Jones KL, Mattox D, Yaege C (2010) Massively parallel 454-sequencing of fungal communities in Quercus spp. ectomycorrhizas indicates seasonal dynamics in urban and rural sites. Mol Ecol 19:41–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Keeley JE, Bond WJ, Bradstock RA, Pausas JG, Rundel PW (2012) Fire in Mediterranean ecosystems. Ecology, evolution and management. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Kemler M, Garnas J, Wingfield MJ, Gryzenhout M, Pillay K-A, Slippers B (2013) Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity. PLoS ONE 8:e81718PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kjøller R, Nilsson L-O, Hansen K, Schmidt IK, Vesterdal L, Gundersen P (2012) Dramatic changes in ectomycorrhizal community composition, root tip abundance and mycelial production along a stand-scale nitrogen deposition gradient. New Phytol 194:278–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kõljalg U, Nilsson RH, Abarenkov K et al (2013) Towards a unified paradigm for sequence-based identification of fungi. Mol Ecol 22:5271–5277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kozlowski TT, Ahlgren CE (eds) (1974) Fire and ecosystems. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Leadley P, Pereira HM, Alkemade R, Fernandez-Manjarrés JF, Proença V, Scharlemann JPW, Walpole MJ (2010) Biodiversity scenarios: projections of 21st century change in biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. Technical Series no. 50, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, 132 pGoogle Scholar
  48. LeDuc S, Lilleskov E, Horton T, Rothstein D (2013) Ectomycorrhizal fungal succession coincides with shifts in organic nitrogen availability and canopy closure in post-wildfire jack pine forests. Oecologia 172:257–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Leite AM, Mayo B, Rachid CT, Peixoto RS, Silva JT, Paschoalin VM, Delgado S (2012) Assessment of the microbial diversity of Brazilian kefir grains by PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis. Food Microbiol 31:215–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Li W, Godzik A (2006) Cd-hit: a fast program for clustering and comparing large sets of protein or nucleotide sequences. Bioinformatics 22:1658–1659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lilleskov EA, Fahey TJ, Horton TR, Lovett GM (2002) Below-ground ectomycorrhizal fungal community change over a nitrogen deposition gradient in Alaska. Ecology 83:104–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lilleskov EA, Bruns TD, Horton TR, Taylor DL, Grogan P (2004) Detection of forest stand-level spatial structure in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 49:319–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lindahl BD, Ihrmark K, Boberg J, Trumbore S, Högberg P, Stenlid J, Finlay RD (2007) Spatial separation of litter decomposition and mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a boreal forest. New Phytol 173:611–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Margulies M, Egholm M, Altman WE et al (2005) Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors. Nature 437:376–380PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Martín-Pinto P, Vaquerizo H, Peñalver F, Olaizola J (2006) Early effects of a wildfire on the diversity and production of fungal communities in Mediterranean vegetation types dominated by Cistus ladanifer and Pinus pinaster in Spain. For Ecol Manag 225:296–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mataix-Solera J, Guerrero C, Garcia-Orenes F, Barcenas GM, Torres MP (2009) Forest fire effects on soil microbiology. In: Cerda A, Robichaud P (eds) Fire effects on soils and restoration strategies. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, pp 133–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McGuire KL, Fierer N, Bateman C, Treseder KK, Turner BL (2012) Fungal community composition in neotropical rain forests: the influence of tree diversity and precipitation. Microb Ecol 63:804–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McGuire KL, Payne SG, Palmer MI, Gillikin CM, Keefe D, Kim SJ, Gedallovich SM, Discenza J, Rangamannar R, Koshner JA, Massmann AL, Orazi G, Essene A, Leff JW, Fierer N (2013) Digging the New York City skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks. PLoS ONE 8:e58020PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Medinger R, Nolte V, Pandey RV, Jost S, Ottenwälder B, Schlötterer C, Boenigk J (2010) Diversity in a hidden world: potential and limitation of next-generation sequencing for surveys of molecular diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms. Mol Ecol 19:32–40PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Muyzer G, De Waal EC, Uitterlinden AG (1993) Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:695–700PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Neary DG, Klopatek CC, DeBano LF, Ffolliott PF (1999) Fire effects on below-ground sustainability: a review and synthesis. For Ecol Manag 122:51–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Neher DA, Weicht TR, Bates ST, Leff JW, Fierer N (2013) Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times. PLoS ONE 8:e79512PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nilsson RH, Ryberg M, Abarenkov K, Sjökvist E, Kristiansson E (2009) The ITS region as target for characterization of fungal communities using emerging sequencing technologies. FEMS Microbiol Lett 296:97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nilsson RH, Veldre V, Hartmann M, Unterseher M, Amend A, Bergsten J, Kristiansson E, Ryberg M, Jumpponen A, Abarenkov K (2010) An open source software package for automated extraction of ITS1 and ITS2 from fungal ITS sequences for use in high-throughput community assays and molecular ecology. Fung Ecol 3:284–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. O’Brian HE, Parrent JL, Jackson JA, Moncalvo JM, Vilgalys R (2005) Fungal community analysis by large-scale sequencing of environmental samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5544–5550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Wagner H (2011) Vegan: community ecology package. R package version 2.0-2. Http://
  67. Orgiazzi A, Lumini E, Nilsson RH, Girlanda M, Vizzini A, Bonfante P, Bianciotto V (2012) Unravelling soil fungal communities from different Mediterranean land-use backgrounds. PLoS ONE 7:e34847PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pausas JG (2004) Changes in fire and climate in the eastern Iberian peninsula (Mediterranean basin). Clim Chang 63:337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. R Development Core Team (2011) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing Vienna. ISBN 3-900051-07-0Google Scholar
  70. Rinaldi AC, Comandini O, Kuyper TW (2008) Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: separating the wheat from the chaff. Fungal Divers 33:1–45Google Scholar
  71. Rincón A, Pueyo JJ (2010) Effect of fire severity and site slope on diversity and structure of the ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with post-fire regenerated Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings. For Ecol Manag 260:361–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rincón A, Santamaría BP, Ocaña L, Verdú M (2014) Structure and phylogenetic diversity of post-fire ectomycorrhizal communities of maritime pine. Mycorrhiza 24:131–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Robinson RM, Mellican AE, Smith RH (2008) Epigeous macrofungal succession in the first five years following a wildfire in karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor) regrowth forest in Western Australia. Aust Ecol 33:807–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rosling A, Landeweert R, Lindahl BD, Larsson KH, Kuyper TW, Taylor AFS, Finlay RD (2003) Vertical distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa in a podzol soil profile. New Phytol 159:775–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rosling A, Cox F, Cruz-Martinez K, Ihrmark K, Grelet G-A, Lindahl BD, Menkis A, James TY (2011) Archaeorhizomycetes: unearthing an ancient class of ubiquitous soil fungi. Science 333:876–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ryberg M, Kristiansson E, Sjökvist E, Nilsson RH (2009) An outlook on the fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences in GenBank and the introduction of a web-based tool for the exploration of fungal diversity. New Phytol 181:471–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sekiguchi H, Tomioka N, Nakahara T, Uchiyama H (2001) A single band does not always represent single bacterial strains in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Biotechnol Lett 23:1205–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith JE, McKay D, Niwa CG, Thies WG, Brenner G, Spatafora JW (2004) Short-term effects of seasonal prescribed burning on the ectomycorrhizal fungal community and fine root biomass in ponderosa pine stands in the Blue Mountains of Oregon. Can J For Res 34:2477–2491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Smithwick EAH, Naithani KJ, Balser TC, Romme WH, Turner MG (2012) Post-fire spatial patterns of soil nitrogen mineralization and microbial abundance. PLoS ONE 7:e50597PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Taylor DL, Bruns TD (1999) Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Pinus muricata forest: minimal overlap between the mature forest and resistant propagule communities. Mol Ecol 8:1837–1850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Taylor DL, Herriott IC, Stone KE, McFarland JW, Booth MG, Leigh MB (2010) Structure and resilience of fungal communities in Alaskan boreal forest. Can J For Res 40:1288–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tedersoo L, Smith ME (2013) Lineages of ectomycorrhizal fungi revisited: foraging strategies and novel lineages revealed by sequences from belowground. Fungal Biol Rev 27:83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tedersoo L, Kõljalg U, Hallenberg N, Larsson K-H (2003) Fine scale distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi and roots across substrate layers including coarse woody debris in a mixed forest. New Phytol 159:153–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tedersoo L, Hansen K, Perry BA, Kjoller R (2006) Molecular and morphological diversity of pezizalean ectomycorrhiza. New Phytol 170:581–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Jairus T, Koljalg U (2008) Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula. Environ Microbiol 10:1189–1201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Thorn G (1997) The fungi in soil. In: van Elsas JD, Trevors JT, Wellington EMH (eds) Modern soil microbiology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 63–127Google Scholar
  87. Torres P, Honrubia M (1997) Changes and effects of a natural fire on ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential of soil in a Pinus halepensis forest. For Ecol Manag 96:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Treseder KK, Mack MC, Cross A (2004) Relationships among fires, fungi, and soil dynamics in Alaskan boreal forests. Ecol Appl 14:1826–1838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tuininga AR, Dighton J (2004) Changes in ectomycorrhizal communities and nutrient availability following prescribed burns in two uplands pine-oak forests in the New Yersey pine barrens. Can J For Res 34:1755–1765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Uehling JK, Henkel TW, Vilgalys R, Smith ME (2012) Membranomyces species are common ectomycorrhizal symbionts in Northern Hemisphere forests. Mycorrhiza 22:577–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Unterseher M, Jumpponen A, Opik M, Tedersoo L, Moora M, Dormann CF, Schnittler M (2011) Species abundance distributions and richness estimations in fungal metagenomics - lessons learned from community ecology. Mol Ecol 20:275–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Urban A, Puschenreiter M, Strauss J, Gorfer M (2008) Diversity and structure of ectomycorrhizal and co-associated fungal communities in a serpentine soil. Mycorrhiza 18:339–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vázquez FJ, Acea MJ, Carballas T (1993) Soil microbial populations after wildfire. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 13:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Villeneuve N, Grandtner MM, Fortin JA (1989) Frequency and diversity of ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic macrofungi in the Laurentide Mountains of Quebec. Can J Bot 67:2616–2629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Visser S (1995) Ectomycorrhizal fungal succession in jack pine stands following wildfire. New Phytol 129:389–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Walker JKM, Jones MD (2013) Little evidence for niche partitioning among ectomycorrhizal fungi on spruce seedlings planted in decayed wood versus mineral soil microsites. Oecologia 173:1499–1511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wang Q, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM, Cole JR (2007) Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:5261–5267PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. White TJ, Bruns TD, Lee SB, Taylor JWE (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA Genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis N, Gelfand D, Sninsky J, White T (eds) PCR—protocols and applications—a laboratory manual. Academic, New York, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  99. Whiteley AS, Jenkins S, Waite I, Kresoje N, Payne H, Mullan B, Allcock R, O’Donnell A (2012) Microbial 16S rRNA Ion Tag and community metagenome sequencing using the Ion Torrent (PGM) Platform. J Microbiol Methods 91:80–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Mushroom Research Foundation 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erika Buscardo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría
    • 1
  • Helena Freitas
    • 1
  • Paolo De Angelis
    • 2
  • João Santos Pereira
    • 4
  • Ludo A. H. Muller
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Centro de Ecologia Funcional (CEF), Departamento de Ciências da VidaUniversidade de CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems (DIBAF)University of TusciaViterboItaly
  3. 3.Escritório Central do LBAInstituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia (INPA)ManausBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Instituto Superior de AgronomiaUniversidade Técnica de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  5. 5.Institut für Biologie—BotanikFreie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations