Fungal Diversity

, Volume 70, Issue 1, pp 31–53 | Cite as

A large-scale phylogenetic revision of Roccellaceae (Arthoniales) reveals eight new genera

  • Damien Ertz
  • Anders Tehler
  • Martin Irestedt
  • Andreas Frisch
  • Göran Thor
  • Pieter van den Boom


A two-locus phylogenetic hypothesis of the family Roccellaceae is presented based on data from the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (nucLSU) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). This analysis includes 341 sequences (166 newly generated) and 180 specimens representing about 114 species. The genera Lecanactis, Roccellina, Schismatomma and Sigridea were found to be paraphyletic/polyphyletic. In order to make these groups monophyletic, the new genera Crocellina, Diromma, Gyrographa, Gyronactis, Ocellomma, Pseudoschismatomma, Psoronactis and Vigneronia are described. The genus Sagenidium is placed in synonymy with Lecanactis. The new species Enterographa incognita, Gyronactis asiatica and Lecanactis submollis are described. Several species of Opegrapha are transferred to the Roccellaceae. Sorediate morphs are recorded for the first time in the genus Syncesia.


Arthoniomycetes Lichenized fungi Molecular phylogenetics New genera Taxonomy 



We warmly thank the curators of the herbaria BR, CDS, G, H, NY, S, TUR and UPS for the loan of specimens. Collection, export permits and support during field work were provided to DE by the staff of the Christoffel Park + the CARMABI research institute (Curaçao), the Parc Botanique et Zoologique de Tsimbazaza in Antananarivo + Ministère des Eaux et Forêts (Madagascar), the Rwanda Office for Tourism + National Parks ORTPN (Rwanda), the Office National des Forêts (ONF) + DIREN (Reunion), the Botanical Garden of Puerto de la Cruz (Tenerife) and the RAMK herbarium (Thailand). Allison Knight, Gintaras Kantvilas and Jan Vondrák kindly provided fresh specimens used in this study. Ann Bogaerts, Cyrille Gerstmans, Wim Baert and Myriam de Haan are thanked for technical assistance at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium. DE acknowledges financial support from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS) from Belgium (F.R.F.C. # 2.4515.06). Permission to AF to perform field work in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park was granted by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA/FOD/33/02) and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. The field work was kindly supported by the Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation (ITFC) in Ruhija. Miriam van Heist and the staff of ITFC are cordially thanked for their deep commitment and invaluable help during the stay of AF in Uganda. At the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences the project was kindly supported by Lena Gustafsson.


  1. Akaike H (1973) Information theory as an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In: Petrov BNFC (ed) Second international symposium on information theory. Akademiai Kiado, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  2. Aptroot A (2008) Lichens of St Helena and Ascension Island. Bot J Linn Soc 158:147–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aptroot A, Sparrius LB (2008) Crustose Roccellaceae in the Galapagos Islands, with the new species Schismatomma spierii. Bryologist 111:659–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aptroot A, Ertz D, de Lima EL, de Jesus KA, Maia LC, Cáceres MES (2013) Two new species of Roccellaceae (Ascomycota: Arthoniales) from Brazil, with the description of the new genus Sergipea. Lichenologist 45:627–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Doyle JJ, Doyle JL (1990) Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue. Focus 12:13–15Google Scholar
  6. Egea JM, Torrente P (1993) Cresponea a new genus of lichenized fungi in the order Arthoniales (Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 48:301–331Google Scholar
  7. Egea JM, Torrente P (1994) El género de hongos liquenizados Lecanactis (Ascomycotina). Bibl Lichenol 54:1–205Google Scholar
  8. Egea JM, Tehler A, Torrente P, Sipman H (1995) Tania, a new genus with byssoid thallus in the order Arthoniales and new data on Sagenidiopsis. Lichenologist 27:351–359Google Scholar
  9. Ertz D (2009) A new species of Enterographa, E. diederichiana (Roccellaceae), from Zambia. Bryologist 112:390–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ertz D, Tehler A (2011) The phylogeny of Arthoniales (Pezizomycotina) inferred from nucLSU and RPB2 sequences. Fungal Divers 49:47–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ertz D, Miadlikowska J, Lutzoni F, Dessein S, Raspe O, Vigneron N, Hofstetter V, Diederich P (2009) Towards a new classification of the Arthoniales (Ascomycota) based on a three-gene phylogeny focussing on the genus Opegrapha. Mycol Res 113:141–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ertz D, Lawrey JD, Common RS, Diederich P (2013) Molecular data resolve a new order of Arthoniomycetes sister to the primarily lichenized Arthoniales and composed of black yeasts, lichenicolous and rock-inhabiting species. Fungal Divers. doi: 10.1007/s13225-013-0250-9 Google Scholar
  13. Ertz D, Tehler A, Fischer E, Killmann D, Razafindrahaja T, Serusiaux E (2014) Isalonactis a new genus of Roccellaceae (Arthoniales) from southern Madagascar. Lichenologist 46:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farris JS, Albert VA, Källersjö M, Lipscomb DL, Kluge AG (1996) Parsimony jackknifing outperforms neighbor-joining. Cladistics 12:99–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Follmann G (2001) An integrated key to, and a critical survey of, the South American representatives of the lichen family Roccellaceae (Arthoniales). J Hattori Bot Lab 90:251–267Google Scholar
  16. Follmann G, Werner BC (2003) Lichenicolous fungi occurring on Roccellaceae (Arthoniales). I. New species from South America. J Hattori Bot Lab 94:261–292Google Scholar
  17. Galloway DJ (1985) Flora of New Zealand lichens. Government Printer, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  18. Gelman A, Rubin DB (1992) Inference from iterative simulation using multiple sequences. Stat Sci 7:457–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goloboff PA, Farris JS, Nixon KC (2008) TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics 24:774–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grube M (1998) Classification and phylogeny in the Arthoniales (lichenized Ascomycetes). Bryologist 101:377–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harris RC (1990) Some Florida lichens. Published by the author. The New York Botanical Garden, BronxGoogle Scholar
  22. Hawksworth D, Kirk P, Sutton BP, Pegler DN (1995) Ainsworth & Bisby’s the dictionary of the Fungi, 8th edn. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  23. Henssen A, Renner B, Vobis G (1979) Sagenidium patagonicum a new South American lichen. Lichenologist 11:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kantvilas G (2004) A contribution to the Roccellaceae in Tasmania: new species and notes on Lecanactis and allied genera. Symb Bot Upsal 34(1):183–203Google Scholar
  25. Lawrey JD, Binder M, Diederich P, Molina MC, Sikaroodi M, Ertz D (2007) Phylogenetic diversity of lichen-associated homobasidiomycetes. Mol Phylogenet Evol 44:778–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu Y, Whelen S, Hall B (1999) Phylogenetic relationships among Ascomycetes: evidence from an RNA polymerase II subunit. Mol Biol Evol 16:1799–1808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lücking R (2008) Foliicolous lichenized fungi. Flora Neotropical Monogr 103:1–866Google Scholar
  28. Maddison D, Maddison W (2002) MacClade Version 4.03PPC: analysis of phylogeny and character evolution. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  29. Mason-Gamer RJ, Kellogg EA (1996) Testing for phylogenetic conflict among molecular datasets in the tribe Triticeae (Gramineae). Syst Biol 45:524–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miadlikowska J, McCune B, Lutzoni F (2002) Pseudocyphellaria perpetua, a new lichen from Western North America. Bryologist 105:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Miller MA, Pfeiffer W, Schwartz T (2010) Creating the CIPRES science gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In: Proceedings of the gateway computing environments workshop (GCE), 14 November 2010, New Orleans, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  32. Nylander JAA (2005) MrModeltest v.2.2. Computer program distributed by the author, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  33. Orange A, James PW, White FJ (2001) Microchemical methods for the identification of lichens. British Lichen Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Pentecost A, James PW (2009) Opegrapha. In: Smith CW, Aptroot A, Coppins BJ, Flechter A, Gilbert OL, James PW, Wolseley PA (eds) The lichens of Great Britain and Ireland. The Natural History Museum, London, pp 631–647Google Scholar
  35. Rambaut A, Drummond AJ (2007) Tracer v1.4, Available from
  36. Reeb V, Lutzoni F, Roux C (2004) Contribution of RPB2 to multilocus phylogenetic studies of the euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Fungi) with special emphasis on the lichen-forming Acarosporaceae and evolution of polyspory. Mol Phylogenet Evol 32:1036–1060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Santesson R (1949) Dolichocarpus and Xanthopeltis, two new lichen genera from Chile. Svensk Bot Tidskr 43:547–567Google Scholar
  39. Sipman H (2009) The lichen genus Syncesia (Arthoniales) on Saba and St. Eustatius (West Indies). Opusc Philolichenum 7:55–60Google Scholar
  40. Sparrius LB (2004) A monograph of Enterographa and Sclerophyton. Bibl Lichenol 89:1–141Google Scholar
  41. Swofford DL (1998) PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (* and other methods). Version 4. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  42. Tehler A (1983) The genera Dirina and Roccellina (Roccellaceae). Opera Bot 70:1–86Google Scholar
  43. Tehler A (1990) A new approach to the phylogeny of Euascomycetes with a cladistic outline of Arthoniales focussing on Roccellaceae. Can J Bot 68:2458–2492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tehler A (1993a) Schismatomma and three new or reinstated genera, a reassessment of generic relationships in Arthoniales. Cryptogamic Bot 3:139–151Google Scholar
  45. Tehler A (1993b) The genus Schismatomma (Arthoniales, Euascomycetidae). Opera Bot 118:1–38Google Scholar
  46. Tehler A (1993c) The genus Sigridea (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales, Euascomycetidae). Nova Hedwigia 57:417–435Google Scholar
  47. Tehler A (1997) Syncesia (Arthoniales, Euascomycetidae). Flora Neotropica, 74, New York Botanical Garden (for Organization for Flora Neotropica), New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Tehler A, Irestedt M (2007) Parallel evolution of lichen growth forms in the family Roccellaceae (Arthoniales, Ascomycota). Cladistics 23:432–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tehler A, Dahlkild Å, Eldenäs P, Feige GB (2004) The phylogeny and taxonomy of Macaronesian, European and Mediterranean Roccella (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales). Symb Bot Upsal 34(1):405–428Google Scholar
  50. Tehler A, Irestedt M, Bungartz F, Wedin M (2009a) Evolution and reproduction modes in the Roccella galapagoensis aggregate (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales). Taxon 58:438–456Google Scholar
  51. Tehler A, Irestedt M, Wedin M, Ertz D (2009b) Origin, evolution and taxonomy of American Roccella (Roccellaceae, Ascomycetes). Syst Biodivers 7:307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tehler A, Irestedt M, Wedin M, Ertz D (2010) The Old World Roccella species outside Europe and Macaronesia: taxonomy, evolution and phylogeny. Syst Biodivers 8:223–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tehler A, Ertz D, Irestedt M (2013a) The genus Dirina (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales) revisited. Lichenologist 45:427–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tehler A, Irestedt M, Ertz D (2013b) Austroroccella, a new fruticose genus in the family Roccellaceae. Bryologist 116:162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Thor G (1990) The lichen genus Chiodecton and five allied genera. Opera Bot 103:1–92Google Scholar
  56. Vilgalys R, Hester M (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus species. J Bacteriol 172:4238–4246PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Mushroom Research Foundation 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Damien Ertz
    • 1
  • Anders Tehler
    • 2
  • Martin Irestedt
    • 3
  • Andreas Frisch
    • 4
  • Göran Thor
    • 5
  • Pieter van den Boom
    • 6
  1. 1.Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Département Bryophytes-ThallophytesMeiseBelgium
  2. 2.Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanikStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för bioinformatik och genetikStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Department of BotanyNational Museum of Nature and ScienceTsukuba-CityJapan
  5. 5.Department of EcologySwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  6. 6.SonThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations