Fungal Diversity

, Volume 62, Issue 1, pp 41–114 | Cite as

Stipitate hydnoid fungi of the temperate southeastern United States

  • Richard Baird
  • Lisa E. Wallace
  • Gerald Baker
  • Mary Scruggs


An 11 year study was conducted to reevaluate the species of stipitate hydnums from the southern United States especially the Great Smoky Mountains and surrounding geography. The genera evaluated included Bankera herein reduced to synonym with Phellodon, Hydnellum, Sarcodon, and Phellodon. Basidiomata of many stipitate hydnum species from this region were abundant but nitrogen depositions during the last 20 years have impacted their occurrences. Therefore it became critical to do a definitive study of these fungi using current taxonomic tools. Many species within Hydnellum and Phellodon have a indeterminate type growth often dependant on environmental conditions making discrimination between closely related species difficult without supportive molecular sequence data. Once sequence data (ITS) was obtained a phylogenetic analyzes were conducted and the sequences were compared to those in GenBank with particular attention to European data. A total of 41 distinct taxa were determined and many of those were confirmed based on morphological data. A specific new combination from Bankera fuligineoalbum to Phellodon fuligineoalbus is made herein. Futhermore, Phellodon brunneoolivaceus is described as new based on morphological and sequence data.


Stipitate hydnums Southern Appalachian Mountains Morphological and molecular data Three genera 



Thanks are due to Drs. Larry Grand, NCSU, and Ron Petersen, TENN, for providing their advice and numerous collections of stipitate hydnums to enable completion of the study. Dr. Roy Halling and staff at NYBG supplyied photocopies of research materials from earlier studies on the stipitate hydnums. Special thanks go to Allein Stanley, Jay Justice and Andy Methven for their positive support and David Pratt, Facilities Manager, University of Tennesse Field Biology Station, for housing and laboratory use during the project.

Funding to cover the costs for travel throughout the Blue Ridge Province and surrounding areas was provided by numerous supplemental grants. The Highlands Biological Station granting program partially supported travel and housing expenses in the 2004 and 2005 growing seasons. Lexemual and Ester Hesler Visiting Professors Endowment Fund travel fund supported the work in 2006. All other funds to cover expenses for molecular sequencing were internal support through the Mississippi State University, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology (MAFES Experiment Station Number 12185). A special thanks is due to Dr. Clarence Collison, chairman of that department (retired), who strongly supported efforts to continue on with the monograph until published even with limited funding. Katherine (Kat) Lawrence for making and revising the photographic plates and general support of the document.

Appreciation is extended to all the amateur mycologists and foray participants (Wildacres, NC forays) who gave us many important collections of stipitate hydnums and occasionally very rare ones. Special thanks to Todd Elliot who seemed to find rare species on every occasion we attended forays together. To the laboratory personnel, especially Candace Parker, for her/their molecular sequence support and to Paul Scott, who provided all the light microscopic photographs shown in this document.


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Copyright information

© Mushroom Research Foundation 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Baird
    • 1
  • Lisa E. Wallace
    • 2
  • Gerald Baker
    • 1
  • Mary Scruggs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant PathologyMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA

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