Phylogeny and taxonomy of Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales), including twenty-five new species in this highly diverse genus
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Species of Ophiognomonia are leaf-inhabiting endophytes, pathogens, and saprobes that infect plants in the families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Platanaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Sapindaceae. Based on extensive collecting, this species-rich genus is now known to have a world wide distribution in primarily temperate areas, although some species are known from the subtropics. Analyses of DNA sequences from three markers including guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-like protein (MS204), translation elongation factor 1α (tef-1α), and the ITS region including ITS1, 5.8 S rDNA and ITS2 regions (ITS) were used to define phylogenetic species in Ophiognomonia. Host plant association correlated with these species. Twenty-five new species of Ophiognomonia and two new combinations are proposed with descriptions and illustrations. In addition, descriptions and illustrations are provided for 12 other species of Ophiognomonia. A key is provided to the 45 currently accepted species of Ophiognomonia. The disposition of additional names in Ophiognomonia is also discussed.