Fungal Diversity

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 131–144 | Cite as

A phylogenetic and taxonomic re-evaluation of the Bipolaris - Cochliobolus - Curvularia Complex

  • Dimuthu S. Manamgoda
  • Lei CaiEmail author
  • Eric H. C. McKenzie
  • Pedro W. Crous
  • Hugo Madrid
  • Ekachai Chukeatirote
  • Roger G. Shivas
  • Yu Pei Tan
  • Kevin D. HydeEmail author


Three genera, Cochliobolus, Bipolaris and Curvularia form a complex that contains many plant pathogens, mostly on grasses (Poaceae) with a worldwide distribution. The taxonomy of this complex is confusing as frequent nomenclatural changes and refinements have occurred. There is no clear morphological boundary between the asexual genera Bipolaris and Curvularia, and some species show intermediate morphology. We investigated this complex based on a set of ex-type cultures and collections from northern Thailand. Combined gene analysis of rDNA ITS (internal transcribed spacer), GPDH (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), LSU (large subunit) and EF1-α (translation elongation factor 1-α) shows that this generic complex divides into two groups. Bipolaris and Cochliobolus species clustered in Group 1 along with their type species, whereas Curvularia species (including species named as Bipolaris, Cochliobolus and Curvularia) clustered in Group 2, with its generic type. The nomenclatural conflict in this complex is resolved giving priority to the more commonly used established generic names Bipolaris and Curvularia. Modern descriptions of the genera Bipolaris and Curvularia are provided and species resolved in this study are transferred to one of these genera based on their phylogeny.


Anamorph Generic complex Neotype Nomenclature Pathogens Pseudocochliobolus 



This study is funded by China NSFC (31110103906) and CAS (KSCX2-YW-Z-1026) and Thailand Research Fund BRG528002. Dimuthu S. Manamgoda thanks the State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing and the Mushroom Research Foundation, Chiang Mai, Thailand for a postgraduate scholarship. Amy Y. Rossman (USDA- ARS) is thanked for the helpful comments on the nomenclatural decisions. Dhanushka Udayanga (Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai) and Fang Liu (CAS, Beijing) are thanked for the assistance.


  1. Alcorn JL (1983) On the genera Cochliobolus and Pseudocochliobolus. Mycotaxon 16:353–379Google Scholar
  2. Agrios GN (2005) Plant pathology, 5th edn. Academic, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  3. Berbee M, Pirseyedi M, Hubbard S (1999) Cochliobolus phylogenetics and the origin of known, highly virulent pathogens, inferred from ITS and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene sequences. Mycologia 91:964–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boedijn KB (1933) Über einige phragmosporen Dematiazen. Bull Jard Bot Buitenzorg 13:120–134Google Scholar
  5. Boonmee SY, Zhang Y, Chomnunti P, Chukeatirote E, Tsui CKM, Bahkali AH, Hyde KD (2011) Revision of lignicolous Tubeufiaceae based on morphological reexamination and phylogenetic analysis. Fungal Divers 53:63–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cai L, Hyde K, Taylor P, Weir B, Waller J, Abang M, Zhang J, Yang Y, Phoulivong S, Liu Z (2009) A polyphasic approach for studying Colletotrichum. Fungal Divers 39:183–204Google Scholar
  7. Cai L, Giraud T, Zhang N, Begerow D, Cai G, Shivas RG (2011) The evolution of species concepts and species recognition criteria in plant pathogenic fungi. Fungal Divers 50:121–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chomnunti P, Schoch CL, Aguirre-Hudson B, Ko-Ko TW, Hongsanan S, Jones EBG, Kodsueb R, Phookamsak R, Chukeatirote E, Bahkali AH (2011) Capnodiaceae. Fungal Divers 51:103–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dasgupta SD, Saha A, Saha D (2005) Levels of common antigens in determining pathogenicity of Curvularia eragrostidis in different tea varieties. J Appl Microbiol 98(5):1084–1092PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drechsler C (1934) Phytopathological and taxonomical aspects of Ophilobolus, Pyrenophora, Helminthosporium and a new genus Cochliobolus. Phytopathology 24:953–983Google Scholar
  11. Emami K, Hack E (2002) Conservation of XYN11A and XYN11B xylanase genes in bipolaris sorghicola, cochliobolus sativus, cochliobolus heterostrophus, and cochliobolus spicifer. Curr Microbiol 45:303–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Glass NL, Donaldson GC (1995) Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes. Appl Environ Microb 61:1323Google Scholar
  13. Goh T (1998) Generic distinction in the Helminthosporium-complex based on restriction analysis of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. Fungal Divers 1:109–113Google Scholar
  14. Guo L, Hyde K, Liew E (2000) Identification of endophytic fungi from Livistona chinensis based on morphology and rDNA sequences. New Phytol 147(3):617–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hawksworth DL, Crous PW, Redhead SA, Reynolds DR, Samson RA, Seifert KA, Taylor JW, Wingfield MJ (2011) The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature. IMA Fungus 2:105–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hawksworth DL (2012) Managing and coping with names of pleomorphic fungi in a period of transition. Mycosphere 3(2):143–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoog GS de, Guarro J, Gené J, Figueras MJ (eds) (2005) Atlas of Clinical Fungi, CD-ROM versionGoogle Scholar
  18. Hunter GC, Wingfield BD, Crous PW, Wingfield MJ (2006) A multi-gene phylogeny for species of Mycosphaerella occurring on Eucalyptus leaves. Stud Mycol 55:147–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hyde K, Chomnunti P, Crous P, Groenewald J, Damm U, Ko TWK, Shivas R, Summerell B, Tan Y (2010) A case for re-inventory of Australia’s plant pathogens. Persoonia 25:50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Katoh K, Asimenos G, Toh H (2009) Multiple alignment of DNA sequences with MAFFT. Methods Mol Biol 537:39–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ko Ko TW, Stephenson SL, Bahkali AH, Hyde KD (2011) From morphology to molecular biology: can we use sequence data to identify fungal endophytes? Fungal Divers 36:69–88Google Scholar
  22. Kodsueb R, Dhanasekaran V, Aptroot A, Lumyong S, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD, Jeewon R (2006) The family Pleosporaceae: intergeneric relationships and phylogenetic perspectives based on sequence analyses of partial 28S rDNA. Mycologia 98:571–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu JK, Phookamsak R, Jones EBG, Zhang Y, Ko Ko TW, Boonmee S, Doilom M, Chukeatirote E, Bahkali AH, Wang Y (2011) Astrosphaeriella is polyphyletic, with species in Fissuroma gen. nov., and Neoastrosphaeriella gen. nov. Fungal Divers 51:135–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Manamgoda DS, Cai L, Bahkali AH, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD (2011) Cochliobolus: an overview and current status of species. Fungal Divers 51:3–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Manamgoda DS, Cai L, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Chukeatirote E (2012) Two new Curvularia species from northern Thailand. (in press)Google Scholar
  26. McNeill J, Barrie FR, Burdet HM, Demoulin V, Hawksworth DL, Marhold K,Nicolson DH, Prado J, Silva PC, Skong JE, Wiersima JH, Turland NJ (2006) International code of botanical nomenclature (Vienna code), Published for IAPT by ARG Gan.Google Scholar
  27. Mendoza L, Ajello L, Taylor JW (2001) The taxonomic status of Lacazia loboi and Rhinosporidium seeberi has been finally resolved with the use of molecular tools. Rev Iberoam Micol 18:95–98Google Scholar
  28. Page RDM (1996) Treeview. An application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computer. Comp Appl Biol Sci 12:357–358Google Scholar
  29. Rinaldi M, Phillips P, Schwartz J, Winn R, Holt G, Shagets F, Elrod J, Nishioka G, Aufdemorte T (1987) Human Curvularia infections: report of five cases and review of the literature. Diagn Micr Infec Dis 6:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schoch C, Crous PW, Groenewald J, Boehm E, Burgess TI, De Gruyter J, De Hoog G, Dixon L, Grube M, Gueidan C (2009) A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes. Stud Mycol 64:1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shimizu K, Tanaka C, Peng YL, Tsuda M (1998) Phylogeny of Bipolaris inferred from nucleotide sequences of Brn1, a reductase gene involved in melanin biosynthesis. J Gen Appl Microbiol 44:251–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shoemaker RA (1959) Nomenclature of Drechslera and Bipolaris, grass parasites segregated from Helminthosporium. Can J Bot 37:879–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sivanesan A (1987) Graminicolous species of Bipolaris, Curvularia, Drechslera, Exserohilum and their teleomorphs. CAB InternationalGoogle Scholar
  34. Swofford D (2002) PAUP 4.0 b10: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  35. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25:4876–4882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tsuda M, Ueyama A, Nishihara N (1977) Pseudocochliobolus nisikadoi, the perfect state of Helminthosporium coicis. Mycologia 69:1109–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Udayanga D, Liu X, McKenzie EHC, Chukeatirote E, Bahkali AHA, Hyde KD (2011) The genus Phomopsis: biology, applications, species concepts and names of common phytopathogens. Fungal Divers 50:189–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Valente P, Ramos J, Leoncini O (1999) Sequencing as a tool in yeast molecular taxonomy. Can J Microbiol 45(11):949–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wakker DZ (1898) het Suikerriet op Java: 196Google Scholar
  40. Zhang Y, Crous PW, Scoch CL, Hyde KD (2012) Pleosporales. Fungal Divers 53:1–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Mushroom Research Foundation 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimuthu S. Manamgoda
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lei Cai
    • 3
    Email author
  • Eric H. C. McKenzie
    • 4
  • Pedro W. Crous
    • 5
  • Hugo Madrid
    • 5
  • Ekachai Chukeatirote
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roger G. Shivas
    • 6
  • Yu Pei Tan
    • 6
  • Kevin D. Hyde
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Excellence in Fungal ResearchMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  2. 2.School of ScienceMae Fah Luang UniversityChiang RaiThailand
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of MicrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Landcare ResearchAucklandNew Zealand
  5. 5.CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity CentreUtrechtNetherlands
  6. 6.Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Plant Pathology Herbarium (BRIP)Plant Biosecurity ScienceBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations