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Fungal Diversity

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 47–71 | Cite as

The phylogeny of Arthoniales (Pezizomycotina) inferred from nucLSU and RPB2 sequences

  • Damien ErtzEmail author
  • Anders Tehler
Article

Abstract

A two-locus phylogenetic study of the order Arthoniales is presented here using the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (nucLSU) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). This analysis is the first large phylogeny of this fungal group and includes 476 sequences and 240 specimens representing 132 species sampled from 31 genera (in their traditional circumscription). In addition to the previously recognized families (Arthoniaceae, Chrysothricaceae and Roccellaceae), three additional family-level groups are recovered, one being poorly supported. Therefore, the new family Roccellographaceae is described and the family Opegraphaceae is reinstated. Morphological characters such as growth form, fruit body type, exciple, hypothecium and ascospores colour, ascospores septation pattern, and chemistry are found to be of limited use in delimiting families and genera, which indicates an unusual level of plasticity in the Arthoniales. This high level of homoplasy might indicate that the Arthoniales is an old group with taxa having evolved in parallel for very long times. The genera Arthonia, Arthothelium, Chiodecton, Hubbsia, Ingaderia, Lecanactis, Lecanographa, Llimonaea, Opegrapha, Roccellina, Schismatomma and Sclerophyton were found paraphyletic. In order to make these genera monophyletic, the new genera Dimidiographa, Fulvophyton, Paraingaderia, Paralecanographa, Paraschismatomma and Sparria are newly described and the genera Alyxoria, Dictyographa and Zwackhia reinstated. The new species Lecanactis borbonica and Paraingaderia placodioidea are described.

Keywords

Lichenized fungi New genera Molecular phylogenetics Roccellographaceae Taxonomy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Martin Irestedt is warmly thanked for his important and generous help with the sequencing work and the Bayesian analyses. Fredrik Ronquist is also thanked for help with the Bayes analyses and for kindly letting us execute the data sets on his computers. Frank Bungartz is warmly thanked for support during field work in the Galapagos Islands, and Kerry Knudsen for his contribution related to P. ochroleucum. Harrie Sipman and Matthias Schultz kindly provided specimens used in this study. André Fraiture and Paul Diederich are thanked for their help with nomenclatural problems. Ann Bogaerts, Cyrille Gerstmans, Francine Demuylder, Patrick Vivignis and Wim Baert are thanked for technical assistance. This publication is contribution number 2029 of the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands. The study was financially supported by Vetenskapsrådet (Swedish Science Research Council) grant 621-2005-5275 and by the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, Belgium (FNRS) / FRFC number 2.4567.08.

Supplementary material

13225_2010_80_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (207 kb)
ESM 1 Online Resource 1 (PDF 207 kb)

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Copyright information

© Kevin D. Hyde 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department Bryophytes-ThallophytesNational Botanic Garden of BelgiumMeiseBelgium
  2. 2.Enheten för kryptogambotanikNaturhistoriska riksmuseetStockholmSweden

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