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Fungal Diversity

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 15–31 | Cite as

Pestalotiopsis a highly creative genus: chemistry and bioactivity of secondary metabolites

  • Jing Xu
  • Sherif S. Ebada
  • Peter Proksch
Review

Abstract

Fungal endophytes are receiving increasing attention by natural product chemists due to their diverse and structurally unprecedented compounds which make them interesting candidates for drug discovery. One fungal genus which is especially productive with regard to the accumulation of a diverse array of mostly bioactive compounds is Pestalotiopsis. This review demonstrates the unique chemical diversity of taxa from this genus and describes their reported bioactivities. To date, alkaloids, terpenoids, isocoumarin derivatives, coumarins, chromones, quinones, semiquinones, peptides, xanthones, xanthone derivatives, phenols, phenolic acids, and lactones, have been reported from Pestalotiopsis species, making this genus a particularly rich source for bioprospecting when compared with other fungal genera. More than 130 different compounds that have been isolated from various species of Pestalotiopsis are covered in this review and their structures are reported within a biogenetic context. Bioassays disclosed that antifungal, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities are the most notable bioactivities of secondary metabolites isolated from this genus. Possible biogenetic pathways for monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, quinones, and lactones that are covered in this review article are also illustrated.

Keywords

Pestalotiopsis Secondary metabolites Bioactivity Biogenetic relationships 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Support by BMBF to Peter Proksch is gratefully acknowledged. Jing Xu wishes to thank China Scholarship Council (the Ministry of Education of China) for a scholarship. A scholarship granted and financed by the Egyptian Government (Ministry of High Education) to Sherif S. Ebada is acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Kevin D. Hyde 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Pharmazeutische Biologie und BiotechnologieHeinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.College of Material and Chemical EngineeringHainan UniversityHaikouChina

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