Advertisement

Fungal Diversity

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 111–131 | Cite as

Four new Ceratocystis spp. associated with wounds on Eucalyptus, Schizolobium and Terminalia trees in Ecuador

  • Marelize van WykEmail author
  • Brenda D. Wingfield
  • Michael J. Wingfield
Article

Abstract

Species of Ceratocystis commonly infect wounds on trees. In this study, artificially induced wounds were made on the stems of Eucalyptus, Schizolobium and Terminalia trees in Ecuadorian lowland forests, in an effort to determine the presence of Ceratocystis spp. in that environment. Species belonging to the C. fimbriata sensu lato (s.l.) complex and others in the C. moniliformis s.l. complex were collected. Phylogenetic analyses for both major groups in Ceratocystis using three gene regions (ITS, β-tubulin and EF1-α) revealed three distinct clades in the C. fimbriata s.l. complex and two in the C. moniliformis s.l. complex. Isolates in the three clades representing the C. fimbriata s.l. complex represent morphologically distinct species that are described here as C. curvata sp. nov., C. ecuadoriana sp. nov. and C. diversiconidia sp. nov. Isolates in one of the two clades in the C. moniliformis species complex represented C. moniliformis sensu stricto (s.s.) and the other was of a species with a distinct morphology that is described here as C. sublaevis sp. nov.

Keywords

Fungal phylogenetics Tree disease Wounds 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the National Research Foundation (NRF), members of the Tree Protection Co-operative Programme (TPCP), the THRIP initiative of the Department of Trade and Industry and the Department of Science and Technology (DST)/NRF Centre of Excellence in Tree Health Biotechnology (CTHB) for funding. We also thank Mr Fernando Montenegro and Fundacion Forestal Manuel Durini for making collections of the fungi described in this study possible. Dr. Hugh Glen kindly suggested names for the new species and provided the Latin diagnoses.

References

  1. Barnes I, Roux J, Wingfield BD, Dudzinski MJ, Old KM, Wingfield MJ (2003) Ceratocystis pirilliformis, a new species from Eucalyptus nitens in Australia. Mycologia 95:865–871CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Clement M, Posada D, Crandall K (2000) TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies. Mol Ecol 9:1657–1660CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cunningham CW (1997) Can three incongruence tests predict when data should be combined? Mol Biol Evol 14:733–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Engelbrecht CJB, Harrington TC (2005) Intersterility, morphology and taxonomy of Ceratocystis fimbriata on sweet potato, cacao and sycamore. Mycologia 97:57–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Engelbrecht CJB, Harrington TC, Alfenas AC, Suarez C (2007) Genetic variation in populations of the cacao wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis cacaofunesta. Plant Pathol 56:923–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Geldenhuis MM, Roux J, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD (2004) Development of polymorphic markers for the root pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola using ISSR-PCR. Mol Ecol Notes 4:547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Glass NL, Donaldson GC (1995) Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous Ascomycetes. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1323–1330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Heath RN, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Meke G, Mbaga A, Roux J (2009) Ceratocystis species on Acacia mearnsii and Eucalyptus spp. in eastern and southern Africa including six new species. Fungal Divers 34:41–67Google Scholar
  9. Hedgcock GG (1906) Studies upon some chromogenic fungi which discolor wood. MO Bot Gard Annu Rep 17:59–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jacobs K, Bergdahl DR, Wingfield MJ, Halik S, Seifert KA, Bright DE, Wingfield BD (2004) Leptographium wingfieldii introduced into North America and found associated with exotic Tomicus piniperda and native bark beetles. Mycol Res 108:411–418CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Johnson JA, Harrington TC, Engelbrecht CJB (2005) Phylogeny and taxonomy of the North American clade of the Ceratocystis fimbriata complex. Mycologia 97:1067–1092CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Juzwik J (1999) Overland transmission of Ceratocystis fagacearum: extending our understanding. In: Cynthia L (ed) Shade tree wilt diseases: proceedings from wilt diseases of shade trees: a national conference. APS Press, St. Paul, pp 83–92Google Scholar
  13. Katoh K, Misawa K, Kuma K, Miyata T (2002) MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform. Nucleic Acids Res 30:3059–3066CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kile GA (1993) Plant diseases caused by species of Ceratocystis sensu stricto and Chalara. In: Wingfield MJ, Seifert KA, Webber JA (eds) Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma: taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity. APS Press, St. Paul, pp 173–183Google Scholar
  15. Lombard L, Bogale M, Montenegro F, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2008) A new bark canker disease of the tropical hardwood tree Cedrelinga cateniformis in Ecuador. Fungal Divers 31:73–81Google Scholar
  16. Moller W, De Vay J (1968) Insect transmission of Ceratocystis fimbriata in deciduous fruit orchards. Phytopathology 58:1499–1508Google Scholar
  17. Nylander JAA (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala UniversityGoogle Scholar
  18. Rayner RW (1970) A mycological colour chart. Commonwealth Mycological Institute and British Mycological Society, Kew, SurreyGoogle Scholar
  19. Rodas C, Roux J, Van Wyk M, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2008) Ceratocystis neglecta sp. nov., infecting Eucalyptus trees in Colombia. Fungal Divers 28:73–84Google Scholar
  20. Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Roux J, Wingfield MJ (2009) Ceratocystis species: emerging pathogens of non-native plantation Eucalyptus and Acacia species. Southern Forests 71:115–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Roux J, Dunlop R, Wingfield MJ (1999) Susceptibility of elite Acacia mearnsii families to Ceratocystis wilt in South Africa. J For Res 4:187–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Roux J, Van Wyk M, Hatting H, Wingfield MJ (2004) Ceratocystis species infecting stem wounds on Eucalyptus grandis in South Africa. Plant Pathol 53:414–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sullivan J (1996) Combining data with different distributions of among-site variation. Syst Biol 45:375–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer AssociatesGoogle Scholar
  26. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S (2007) MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24:1596–1599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Van Wyk M, Roux J, Barnes I, Wingfield BD, Liew ECY, Assa B, Summerell BA, Wingfield MJ (2004) Ceratocystis polychroma sp. nov., a new species from Syzygium aromaticum in Sulawesi. Stud Mycol 50:273–282Google Scholar
  28. Van Wyk M, Roux J, Barnes I, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2006a) Molecular phylogeny of the Ceratocystis moniliformis complex and description of C. tribilliformis sp. nov. Fungal Divers 21:181–201Google Scholar
  29. Van Wyk M, Van der Merwe NA, Roux J, Wingfield BD, Kamgan GN, Wingfield MJ (2006b) Population genetic analyses suggest that the Eucalyptus fungal pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata has been introduced into South Africa. S Afr J Sci 102:259–263Google Scholar
  30. Van Wyk M, Al-Adawi AO, Khan IA, Deadman ML, Al-Jahwari A, Wingfield BD, Ploetz R, Wingfield MJ (2007a) Ceratocystis manginecans sp. nov., causal agent of a destructive mango wilt disease in Oman and Pakistan. Fungal Divers 27:213–230Google Scholar
  31. Van Wyk M, Pegg G, Lawson S, Wingfield MJ (2007b) Ceratocystis atrox sp. nov associated with Phoracanthta acanthocera infestations on Eucalyptus in Australia. Aust J Plant Pathol 36:407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Van Wyk M, Wingfield BD, Mohali S, Wingfield MJ (2009) Ceratocystis fimbriatomima, a new species in the C. fimbriata sensu lato complex isolated from Eucalyptus trees in Venezuela. Fungal Divers 34:173–183Google Scholar
  33. Van Wyk M, Wingfield BD, Marin M, Wingfield MJ (2010a) Two new Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia. Fungal Divers 40:103–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Wyk M, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2010b) Ceratocystis species in the Ceratocystis fimbriata complex. In: Ceratophiostoma. North Stadbroke Island, Brisbane, Australia, Aug 2006 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  35. Webster RK, Butler EE (1967) A morphological concept of the species Ceratocystis fimbriata. Can J Bot 45:1457–1467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR Protocols: a sequencing guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  37. Wingfield MJ, Harrington TC, Solheim H (1997) Two species in the Ceratocystis coerulescens complex from conifers in western North America. Can J Bot 75:827–834Google Scholar
  38. Witthuhn RC, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Wolfaart M (1998) Monophyly of the conifer species in the Ceratocystis coerulescens complex based on DNA sequence data. Mycologia 90:96–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yuan ZQ, Mohammed C (2002) Ceratocystis moniliformopsis sp. nov., an early colonizer of Eucalyptus oblique logs in Tasmania, Australia. Aust Syst Bot 15:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kevin D. Hyde 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marelize van Wyk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brenda D. Wingfield
    • 1
  • Michael J. Wingfield
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)University of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations