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Sex Hormones and Cognition: Where Do We Stand?

  • Satish V. KhadilkarEmail author
  • Varsha A. Patil
Review Article
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis regulates the reproductive system. The overall health and wellbeing of a woman is subject to fluctuations in the sex hormones throughout her lifespan. Menopause, either natural or surgically induced, is often associated with cognitive complaints, especially memory disturbances. Sex hormones, besides affecting the reproductive function, affect the central nervous system in many ways. Here, we aim to review the role of sex hormones in cognition and the current evidence on use of or against menopausal hormonal therapy as a cognition enhancer in women with cognitive disturbances, including those with Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords

Alzheimer’s disease Cognition Dementia Estrogen Estradiol Hormone therapy Menopausal hormonal therapy Memory Sex hormones 

Notes

Author’s Contribution

SVK and VAP were involved in literature research, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing and revision. Both the authors have read the manuscript and approved the final version.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Both the authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Federation of Obstetric & Gynecological Societies of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyBombay Hospital Institute of Medical SciencesMumbaiIndia

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