Male Factor Infertility: Clues to Diagnose 46, XX Male
- 83 Downloads
The XX male syndrome, first reported in 1964, is an unusual cause of male factor infertility. Its relative rarity coupled with the presence of unambiguous male external genitalia in most patients with this syndrome makes clinicians overlook the condition in the differential diagnosis of primary infertility. We report five genetically proven XX males, who all presented with azoospermia and primary infertility (four out of five), and discuss their phenotypic characteristics and hormonal profiles to make treating physicians aware of this diagnosis in appropriate settings.
The study was not funded by anybody. The patients themselves bore the cost of suggested investigations.
PPC, RB, SM and SC were involved in evaluation and management of first four patients. AR was involved in evaluation and management of case 5. PPC and RB were involved in the literature search and writing of the manuscript. SM and SC checked and finalized the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of interest
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest if any: None. All the authors (PPC, RB, AR, SM and SC) declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article contains case series only. The patients were evaluated according to their presentations. They were not included in any study protocol by any of the authors. The Institute approves publication of case series.
Informed consents were obtained from all individual patients.