Advertisement

BMSAP

, Volume 26, Issue 3–4, pp 178–183 | Cite as

Structuration des comportements alimentaires chez l’Homme. Apport comparé des modèles primates non humains

  • L. TarnaudEmail author
Note / Note
  • 41 Downloads

Résumé

Les modalités d’acquisition des comportements alimentaires chez les primates défient les explications théoriques issues de la théorie des histoires de vie. Comment expliquer que chez l’homme, par exemple, l’enfant soit sevré plus rapidement que les jeunes des autres espèces anthropoïdes ? Afin d’appréhender les déterminants du développement des comportements alimentaires chez les primates, la maturation des habitudes alimentaires de quatre lémuriens (lémurien brun, lémurien à front roux, lémur catta, propithèque de Verreaux) et un simien (macaque du Japon) au cours de leurs premiers mois d’existence a été étudiée. Il est apparu que l’acquisition des comportements alimentaires chez ces espèces est précoce et correspond à la phase de transition alimentaire lait-nourriture solide. Elle repose sur des apprentissages individuels et socialement favorisés lors des alimentations synchronisées mère-jeune et sur un apprentissage social de type apprentissage par stimulation chez le macaque du Japon. Les jeunes macaques montrent un intérêt particulier pour les aliments rares au moment où ils sont consommés par les adultes. Ces observations confirment les résultats de l’unique étude à disposition chez l’Homme (Nicklaus et al., 2005) qui montre que les préférences alimentaires adultes sont principalement corrélées aux habitudes de consommation des enfants âgés de moins de 5 ans. Elles mettent aussi en avant l’importance de la durée de l’investissement maternel dans la mise en place d’apprentissages complexes.

Mots clés

Alimentation Apprentissage Investissement maternel Lémuriens Macaque du Japon: Phase de développement 

How do humans acquire their adult feeding patterns? What non-human primates can tell us

Abstract

How young non-human primates and human infants acquire their adult feeding behaviour is a question that challenges the theoretical explanations derived from life history theory. Why, for example, are human infants weaned sooner than other anthropoids? In order to discern the factors that determine the development of feeding behaviour in primates, we made a study of 4 young lemurs (brown, redfronted, ring-tailed and white sifaka) and a Japanese macaque during the first months of their lives.We found that adult feeding behaviour in these species is acquired at a very young age, at the time when the young animals are weaned off milk and onto solid food. In lemurs, the individual learning process is encouraged socially as mothers and their young synchronise their feeding, while the learning process in young Japanese macaques is stimulated by the social group. The young Japanese macaques were very attentive to unusual food when it was being consumed by their elders. Our observations concur with the results of the only available study on humans (Nicklaus et al., 2005), which shows that food preferences in adult humans are mainly correlated with the feeding habits acquired by children before the age of 5. They also shed light on the importance of the duration of maternal investment in complex learning processes.

Keywords

Feeding Learning Maternal investment Lemurs Japanese macaque Developmental phase 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Références

  1. 1.
    Benton D (2010) The influence of dietary status on the cognitive performance of children. Mol Nutr Food Res 54:457–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kennedy G (2005) From the ape’s dilemma to the weanling’s dilemma: early weaning and its evolutionary context. J Human Evol 48:123–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Deacon TW (1990) Fallacies of progression in theories of brainsize evolution. Int J Primatol 11:193–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Godfrey L, Samonds KE, Jungers WL, et al (2004) Ontogenetic correlates of diet in malagasy lemurs. Amer J Physical Anthropol 276:250–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jones J (2011) Primates and the evolution of long, slow life histories Current Biol 21:708–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nicklaus S, Boggio V, Chabanet C, Issanchou S (2005) A prospective study of food variety seeking in chlidhood adolescence and early adult life. Appetite 44:289–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Trabulsi JC, Mennella JA (2012) Diet, sensitive periods in flavour learning, and growth. Int. Rev. Psychiat 24:219–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schaal, B, Marlier L, Soussignan R (2000) Human fetuses learn odors from their pregnant mother’s diet. Chem Senses 25:729–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schiel N, Huber L (2006) Social influences on the development of foraging behaviour in free-living Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Am J Primatol 68:1150–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tarnaud L (2008) Mother-young feeding synchrony and early food selection differences in Eulemur fulvus. Int J Primatol 29:1687–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Steiner JE, Glaser D, Hawilo ME, Berridge KC (2001) Comparative expression of hedonic impact: affective reactions to taste by human infants and other primates. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 25:53–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schafe GE, Bernstein IL (1996) Taste aversion learning. In Capaldi ED (ed) Why we eat what we eat. Washington DC, Am. Psycholo Assoc, pp 31–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Visalberghi E, Sabbatini G, Stammati M, Addessi E (2003) Preferences towards novel foods in Cebus paella: the role of nutrient and social influence. Physiol Behav 80:341–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johnson EC (1997) Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) continue to exhibit caution toward novel foods when food stressed. Am J Primatol 42:119–20Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rapaport LM, Brown GR (2008) Social influences on foraging behaviour in young non-human primates: learning what, where, and how to eat. Evol Anthropol 17:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tarnaud L, Garcia C, Krief S, Simmen B (2010) Apports nutritionnels, dépense et bilan énergétiques chez l’homme et les primates non-humains: aspects méthodologiques. Revue de primatologie [En ligne] URL: http://primatologie.revues.org/558Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ôta K, Makino Y, Kimura M, Suziki J (1991) Lactation in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata): Yield and composition of milk and nipple preference of young. Primates 32:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fedigan LM, Fedigan L (1977) The social development of handicapped infant in a free-ranging troop of Japanese monkeys. In: Chevalier-Skolnikoff S, Poirier F (ed) Primate biosocial development: biological, social and ecological determinants. New York: Garland Press, pp 205–22Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tarnaud L (2004) Ontogeny of feeding behaviour of Eulemur fulvus in the dry forest of Mayotte. Int J Primatol 25:803–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clayton DA (1978) Socially facilitated behavior. Quat Rev Biol 53:373–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spence KW (1937) Experimental studies of learning and the mental processes in infra-human primates. Psychol Bul 34:806–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tarnaud L, Yamagiwa J (2008) Age-dependent patterns of intensive observation on elders by free-ranging young Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) within foraging context on Yakushima. Am J Primatol 70:1103–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nicklaus S, Boggio V, Chabanet C, Issanchou S (2004) A prospective study of food preferences in childhood. Food Qual Pref 15:805–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fragaszy, Visalberghi E, Galloway A (1997) Infant tufted capuchin monkeys’ behaviour with novel foods: opportunism, not selectivity. Anim Behav 53:1337–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Barton R, Capellini I (2011) Maternal investment, life histories, and the costs of brain growth in mammals. Proceeding Nat Acad Sciences USA 108: 6169–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Société d'anthropologie de Paris et Springer-Verlag France 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UMR 7206 “Eco-anthropologie et ethnobiologie” (CNRS/MNHN/Paris VII), Muséum national d’Histoire naturelleParis cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations