Advertisement

Les enjeux anthropologiques du mélange génétique

  • G. GourjonEmail author
Article / Article
  • 135 Downloads

Résumé

L’étude des mélanges génétiques entre populations humaines directement consécutifs à leurs migrations, confirme ou infirme les données historiques, linguistiques ou archéologiques. Ces dernières années, le développement des études pangénomiques produisant de nombreuses données moléculaires a permis d’inférer sur les événements anciens de mélanges à l’aide de modèles statistiques et démographiques complexes. En revenant sur les mélanges entre Dénisoviens, Néandertaliens et Homo sapiens, sur les mélanges historiques en Asie centrale, aux Amériques, en Mélanésie ou encore dans l’Océan Indien, nous proposons une réflexion sur l’apport de l’étude du mélange génétique à la compréhension de l’histoire démographique de ces populations et, plus généralement, sur le rôle du mélange dans les populations humaines.

Mots clés

Mélange génétique Dénisova Migrations humaines Modèles démographiques Peuplement 

Anthropological issues in genetic admixture

Abstract

Studies of genetic admixture a direct result of human migrations, can identify past gene flows between populations and confirm or contradict historical, linguistic and archaeological data. In the last few years, genomewide studies have been producing a great deal of molecular data that can be used to infer past genetic admixture with the help of complex demographical and statistical models. Based on prehistoric genetic admixture events among Denisovans, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, and historical admixture as in Central Asia, North and South America, Melanesia or the Indian Ocean, we discuss the contributions of genetic admixture studies in furthering our understanding of the demographic history of these populations and, more generally, of the role played by genetic admixture in human populations.

Keywords

Genetic admixture Denisova Human migrations Demographic models Peopling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Références

  1. 1.
    Durand E, Jay F, Gaggiotti OE, et al (2009) Spatial inference of admixture proportions and secondary contact zones. Mol Biol Evol 26(9):1963–1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    François O, Currat M, Ray N, et al (2010) Principal component analysis under population genetic models of range expansion and admixture. Mol Biol Evol 27(6):1257–1268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benoist J (1991) Le métissage: biologie d’un fait social, sociologie d’un fait biologique. In: L’Harmattan (ed) Métissages. Tome II. Linguistique et anthropologie. Unité de recherche associée (URA) 1041 CNRS, Paris, pp 13–22Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gourjon G (2010) L’estimation du mélange génétique dans les populations humaines. Ph D thesis, Université de la Méditerranée, Aix-Marseille-II, MarseilleGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Neuville H (1933) L’espèce, la race et le métissage en anthropologie. Masson et Cie Éditeurs, Paris, 515 pGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hellenthal G, Auton A, Falush D (2008) Inferring human colonization history using a copying model. PLoS Genet 4(5):e1000078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pittard E (1924). Les races et l’histoire. La renaissance du livre, Paris, 619 pGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Quatrefages A (1861). Unité de l’espèce humaine. Librairie Hachette et Cie, Paris, 420 pGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deason ML, Salas A, Newman SP (2012) Interdisciplinary approach to the demography of Jamaica. BMC Evol Biol 12(1):24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hodoğlugil U, Mahley RW (2012) Turkish population structure and genetic ancestry reveal relatedness among Eurasian populations. Ann Hum Genet 76(2):128–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stoneking M, Krause J (2011) Learning about human population history from ancient and modern genomes. Nat Rev Genet 12(9):603–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bernstein F (1931) Die geographische verteilung der blutgruppen und ihre anthropologische bedeutung. In: Ginni C (ed) Comitato Italiano per lo Studio dei Problemi della Populazione. Istituto poligrafico dello Stato, Roma, pp 227–243Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roberts D (1955) The dynamics of racial intermixture in the American Negro-some anthropological considerations. Am J Hum Genet 7(4):361–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Erdei E, Sheng H, Maestas E, et al (2011) Self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry in relation to oral cancer and pre-cancer in Puerto Rico. PLoS One 6(8):e23950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Galanter JM, Fernandez-Lopez JC, Gignoux CR, et al (2012) Development of a panel of genome-wide ancestry informative markers to study admixture throughout the Americas. PLoS Genet 8(3):e1002554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Myles S, Davison D, Barrett J, et al (2008) Worldwide population differentiation at disease-associated SNPs. BMC Med Genomics 1:22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shriner D, Adeyemo A, Ramos E, et al (2011) Mapping of disease-associated variants in admixed populations. Genome Biol 12(5):223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Haddon AC (1911) The wanderings of peoples. Cambridge University Press, London, 124 pGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cavalli-Sforza L, Bodmer W (1971). The genetics of human populations. WH Freeman and Company, San Francisco, California, 943 pGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Glass B, Li C (1953) The dynamics of racial intermixture; an analysis based on the American Negro. Am J Hum Genet 5(1):1–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Saldanha P (1957) Gene flow from white into Negro populations in Brazil. Am J Hum Genet 9(4):299–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gourjon G, Degioanni A (2008). Couleur de peau et classification biologique. In CNRS Éditions (ed) Coloris Corpus. Paris, pp 94–102Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pollitzer WS (1969) Ancestral traits, parental populations, and hybrids. Am J Phys Anthropol 30(3):415–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Trevor J (1953) Race crossing in man: the analysis of metrical characters. Eugenics Lab. Memoirs 36:1–45Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bertorelle G, Excoffier L (1998) Inferring admixture proportions from molecular data. Mol Biol Evol 15(10):1298–1311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chakraborty R (1975) Estimation of race admixture — a new method. Am J Phys Anthropol 42(3):507–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Long J (1991) The genetic structure of admixed populations. Genetics 127(2):417–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Roberts D, Hiorns R (1965) Methods of analysis of the genetic composition of a hybrid population. Hum Biol 37:38–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sousa V, Fritz M, Beaumont MA, et al (2009) Approximate Bayesian computation without summary statistics: the case of admixture. Genetics 181(4):1507–1519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang J (2006) A coalescent-based estimator of admixture from DNA sequences. Genetics 173(3):1679–1692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Beaumont M, Zhang W, Balding DJ (2002) Approximate Bayesian computation in population genetics. Genetics 162(4):2025–2035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hanis C, Chakraborty R, Ferrell RE, et al (1986) Individual admixture estimates: disease associations and individual risk of diabetes and gallbladder disease among Mexican-Americans in Starr County, Texas. Am J Phys Anthropol 70(4):433–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shriver MD, Parra EJ, Dios S, et al (2003) Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping. Hum Genet 112(4):387–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stephens JC, Briscoe D, O’Brien SJ (1994) Mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium in human populations: limits and guidelines. Am J Hum Genet 55(4):809–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Winkler CA, Nelson GW, Smith MW (2010) Admixture mapping comes of age. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 11:65–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    McKeigue PM (2005) Prospects for admixture mapping of complex traits. Am J Hum Genet 76(1):1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155(2):945–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Choudhry S, Taub M, Mei R, et al (2008) Genome-wide screen for asthma in Puerto Ricans: evidence for association with 5q23 region. Hum Genet 123(5):455–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Salari K, Choudhry S, Tang H, et al (2005) Genetic admixture and asthma-related phenotypes in Mexican American and Puerto Rican asthmatics. Genet Epidemiol 29(1):76–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Reich D, Green RE, Kircher M, et al (2010) Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature 468(7327):1053–1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Currat M, Excoffier L (2005) The effect of the Neolithic expansion on European molecular diversity. Proc Biol Sci 272(1564):679–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Green RE, Krause J, Briggs AW, et al (2010) A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. Science 328(5979):710–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Herrera K, Somarelli J, Lowery RK, et al (2009) To what extent did Neanderthals and modern humans interact? Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 84(2):245–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hofreiter M (2011) Drafting human ancestry: what does the Neanderthal genome tell us about hominid evolution? Commentary on Green et al (2010). Hum Biol 83(1):1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Reich D, Patterson N, Kircher M, et al (2011) Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania. Am J Hum Genet 89(4):516–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schillaci MA, Froehlich JW (2001) Nonhuman primate hybridization and the taxonomic status of Neanderthals. Am J Phys Anthropol 115(2):157–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Martínez-Cruz B, Vitalis R, Ségurel L, et al (2011) In the heartland of Eurasia: the multilocus genetic landscape of Central Asian populations. Eur J Hum Genet 19(2):216–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Arpini-Sampaio Z, Costa M, Melo AA, et al (1999) Genetic polymorphisms and ethnic admixture in African-derived black communities of northeastern Brazil. Hum Biol 71(1):69–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bonilla C, Shriver M, Parra EJ, et al (2004) Ancestral proportions and their association with skin pigmentation and bone mineral density in Puerto Rican women from New York city. Hum Genet 115(1):57–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Korey K (1980) Skin colorimetry and admixture measurement: some further considerations. Am J Phys Anthropol 53(1):123–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lees F, Relethford J (1978) Admixture estimation using skin reflectance data. Am J Phys Anthropol 49(4):505–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Marrero A, Das Neves Leite F, De Almeida Carvalho B, et al (2005) Heterogeneity of the genome ancestry of individuals classified as White in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Am J Hum Biol 17(4):496–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mitchell B, Williams-Blangero S, Chakraborty R, et al (1993) A comparison of three methods for assessing Amerindian admixture in Mexican Americans. Ethn Dis 3(1):22–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Relethford J, Stern M, Gaskill SP, et al (1983) Social class, admixture, and skin color variation in Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Americans living in San Antonio, Texas. Am J Phys Anthropol 61(1):97–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sans M (2000) Admixture studies in Latin America: from the 20th to the 21st century. Hum Biol 72(1):155–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sans M, Bertoni B, Hidalgo PC (2000) Population admixture in America: concepts, estimations, and the direction of gene flow. Am J Phys Anthropol: 30:268–268Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shriver M, Parra E (2000) Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry for measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry. Am J Phys Anthropol 112(1):17–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Parra E, Kittles R, Argyropoulos G, et al (2001) Ancestral proportions and admixture dynamics in geographically defined African Americans living in South Carolina. Am J Phys Anthropol 114(1):18–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Parra F, Amado R, Lambertucci JR, et al (2003) Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(1):177–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Parra E, Kittles R, Shriver M (2004) Implications of correlations between skin color and genetic ancestry for biomedical research. Nat Genet 36(11 Suppl):S54–S60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pimenta J, Zuccherato L, Debes AA, et al (2006) Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians: a study with forensic microsatellites. Hum Hered 62(4):190–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wijsman E, Neves W (1986) The use of nonmetric variation in estimating human population admixture: a test case with Brazilian blacks, whites, and mulattos. Am J Phys Anthropol 70(3):395–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jobling MA, Hurles ME, Tyler-Smith C (2003). Human evolutionary genetics: origins, people and disease. Garland Science Publishing, London/New York, 458 pGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Salzano F, Bortolini M (2002). The evolution and genetics of Latin American populations. Cambridge University Press, New-York, 512 pGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Via M, Gignoux CR, Roth LA, et al (2011) History shaped the geographic distribution of genomic admixture on the island of Puerto Rico. PLoS One 6(1):e16513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Telles E, Murguia E (1990) Phenotypic discrimination and income differences among Mexican Americans. Soc Sci Quarterly 71(4):682–694Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Meier R (1975) Dermatoglyphics of Easter Islanders analyzed by pattern type, admixture effect, and ridge count variation. Am J Phys Anthropol 42(2):269–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Palomino H, Barton S, Murillo F, et al (1978) The Aymara of Western Bolivia. II. Maxillofacial and dental arch variation. Am J Phys Anthropol 49(2):157–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Piedade M, Oliveira M, Azevêdo ES (1977) Racial differences in anthropometric traits in school children of Bahia, Brazil. Am J Phys Anthropol 46(3):471–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pollitzer WS, Elston RC (1973). Racial admixture. Physical anthropology and its extending horizons. In: Basu AGA, Biswas SK, Gosh R (eds) SS Sarkar Memorial Volume. Orient Longman, Calcutta, pp 163–173Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Baume R, Crawford M (1978) Discrete dental traits in four Tlaxcaltecan Mexican populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 49(3):351–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Blangero J (1986) Admixture estimation using multivariate quantitative traits: a maximum likelihood approach. 55th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Am J Phys Anthropol 69:177Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Corruccini R (1972) The biological relationships of some prehistoric and historic Pueblo populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 37(3):373–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Corruccini R (1974) An examination of the meaning of cranial discrete traits for human skeletal biological studies. Am J Phys Anthropol 40(3):425–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hanihara T, Yoshida K, Ishida H (2008) Craniometric variation of the Ainu: an assessment of differential gene flow from northeast Asia into northern Japan, Hokkaido. Am J Phys Anthropol 137(3):283–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lopez Alonso S (1990) Datos dermatoglíficos de una muestra de población mestiza de la Ciudad de México. Est Anthropol Biol 5:275–286Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Martínez-Abadías N, González-José R, González-Martín A, et al (2006) Phenotypic evolution of human craniofacial morphology after admixture: a geometric morphometrics approach. Am J Phys Anthropol 129(3):387–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Meredith H (1979) Relationship of lower limb height to sitting height in black populations of Africa and the United States. Am J Phys Anthropol 51(1):63–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Relethford J (1988) Effects of English admixture and geographic distance on anthropometric variation and genetic structure in 19th-century Ireland. Am J Phys Anthropol 76(1):111–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Serrano C (1982) Dermatoglifos de coras, huicholes y mestizos de la Sierra Norte de Nayarit, Mexico. Est Antropol Biol 1:162Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Odling-Smee J, Laland K, Feldman M (2003) Niche Construction, The Neglected Process in Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New-Jersey, 468 pGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Laland KN, Odling-Smee J, Myles S (2010) How culture shaped the human genome: bringing genetics and the human sciences together. Nat Rev Genet 11(2):137–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hünemeier T, Amorim CE, Azevedo S, et al (2012) Evolutionary responses to a constructed niche: ancient mesoamericans as a model of gene-culture coevolution. PLoS One 7(6):e38862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman MW (1981) Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New-Jersey, 388 pGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hünemeier T, Gómez-Valdés J, Ballesteros-Romero M, et al (2012) Cultural diversification promotes rapid phenotypic evolution in Xavánte Indians. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(1):73–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Guerreiro-Junior V, Bisso-Machado R, Marrero A, et al (2009) Genetic signatures of parental contribution in black and white populations in Brazil. Genet Mol Biol 32(1):1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lao O, Vallone PM, Coble MD, et al (2010) Evaluating selfdeclared ancestry of US Americans with autosomal, Ychromosomal and mitochondrial DNA. Hum Mutat 31(12): E1875–E1893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Halder I, Kip KE, Mulukutla SR, et al (2012) Biogeographic ancestry, self-identified race, and admixture-phenotype associations in the Heart SCORE Study. Am J Epidemiol 176(2):146–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Flores C, Ma SF, Pino-Yanes M, et al (2012) African ancestry is associated with asthma risk in African Americans. PLoS One 7(1):e26807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sucheston LE, Bensen JT, Xu Z, et al (2012) Genetic ancestry, self-reported race and ethnicity in African Americans and European Americans in the PCaP cohort. PLoS One 7(3):e30950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kumar R, Tsai HJ, Hong X, et al (2012) African ancestry, early life exposures, and respiratory morbidity in early childhood. Clin Exp Allergy 42(2):265–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Allen KD (2010) Racial and ethnic disparities in osteoarthritis phenotypes. Curr Opin Rheumatol 22(5):528–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Workman P (1973) Genetic analyses of hybrid populations. In: Crawford MH, Workman PL (eds) Methods and theories of anthropological genetics. Univ. N. Mex. Press, Albuquerque, pp 117–150Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tang H, Peng J, Wang P, et al (2005) Estimation of individual admixture: analytical and study design considerations. Genet Epidemiol 28(4):289–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    López Herráez D, Bauchet M, Tang K, et al (2009) Genetic variation and recent positive selection in worldwide human populations: evidence from nearly 1 million SNPs. PLoS One 4(11):e7888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Reich D, Thangaraj K, Patterson N, et al (2009) Reconstructing Indian population history. Nature 461(7263):489–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pereira R, Phillips C, Pinto N, et al (2012) Straightforward inference of ancestry and admixture proportions through ancestryinformative insertion deletion multiplexing. PLoS One 7(1): e29684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cornuet J, Santos F, Beaumont MA, et al (2008) Inferring population history with DIY ABC: a user-friendly approach to approximate Bayesian computation. Bioinformatics 24(23):2713–2719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Cornuet J, Ravigné V, Estoup A (2010) Inference on population history and model checking using DNA sequence and microsatellite data with the software DIYABC (v1.0). BMC Bioinformatics 11:401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Excoffier L, Estoup A, Cornuet J (2005) Bayesian analysis of an admixture model with mutations and arbitrarily linked markers. Genetics 169(3):1727–1738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lopes J, Balding D, Beaumont MA (2009) PopABC: a program to infer historical demographic parameters. Bioinformatics 25(20):2747–2749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sousa VC, Beaumont MA, Fernandes P, et al (2011) Population divergence with or without admixture: selecting models using an ABC approach. Heredity (Edinb) doi: 10.1038/hdyGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Verdu P, Austerlitz F, Estoup A, et al (2009) Origins and genetic diversity of pygmy hunter-gatherers from Western Central Africa. Curr Biol 19(4):312–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wollstein A, Lao O, Becker C, et al (2010) Demographic history of Oceania inferred from genome-wide data. Curr Biol 20(22):1983–1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Abe-Sandes K, Silva WJ, Zago MA (2004) Heterogeneity of the Y chromosome in Afro-Brazilian populations. Hum Biol 76(1):77–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Fejerman L, Carnese F, Goicoechea AS, et al (2005) African ancestry of the population of Buenos Aires. Am J Phys Anthropol 128(1):164–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Martínez Marignac V, Bertoni B, Parra E, et al (2004) Characterization of admixture in an urban sample from Buenos Aires, Argentina, using uniparentally and biparentally inherited genetic markers. Hum Biol 76(4):543–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Morera B, Barrantes R, Marin-Rojas R (2003) Gene admixture in the Costa Rican population. Ann Hum Genet 67(Pt 1):71–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sans M, Weimer T, Franco MH, et al (2002) Unequal contributions of male and female gene pools from parental populations in the African descendants of the city of Melo, Uruguay. Am J Phys Anthropol 118(1):33–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Silva MC, Zuccherato LW, Soares-Souza GB, et al (2010) Development of two multiplex mini-sequencing panels of ancestry informative SNPs for studies in Latin Americans: an application to populations of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil). Genet Mol Res 9(4):2069–2085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mazières S, Sevin A, Callegari-Jacques SM, et al (2009) Population genetic dynamics in the French Guiana region. Am J Hum Biol 21(1):113–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Brucato N, Cassar O, Tonasso L, et al (2010) The imprint of the Slave Trade in an African American population: mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HTLV-1 analysis in the Noir Marron of French Guiana. BMC Evol Biol 10:314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Palha T, Gusmão L, Ribeiro-Rodrigues E, et al (2012) Disclosing the genetic structure of Brazil through analysis of male lineages with highly discriminating haplotypes. PLoS One 7(7):e40007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pena SD, Di Pietro G, Fuchshuber-Moraes M, et al (2011) The genomic ancestry of individuals from different geographical regions of Brazil is more uniform than expected. PLoS One 6(2):e17063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Carvalho BM, Bortolini MC, dos Santos SEB, et al (2008) Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations. Genet Mol Biol 31(1):12–22Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Bertoni B, Budowle B, Sans M, et al (2003) Admixture in Hispanics: distribution of ancestral population contributions in the Continental United States. Hum Biol 75(1):1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Williams R, Knowler W, Pettitt DJ, et al (1992) The magnitude and origin of European-American admixture in the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona: a union of genetics and demography. Am J Hum Genet 51(1):101–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bonilla C, Gutiérrez G, Parra E, et al (2005) Admixture analysis of a rural population of the state of Guerrero, Mexico. Am J Phys Anthropol 128(4):861–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Benn-Torres J, Bonilla C, Robbins CM, et al (2008) Admixture and population stratification in African Caribbean populations. Ann Hum Genet 72(Pt 1):90–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Halder I, Shriver M, Thomas M, et al (2008) A panel of ancestry informative markers for estimating individual biogeographical ancestry and admixture from four continents: utility and applications. Hum Mutat 29(5):648–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Alves-Silva J, da Silva Santos M, Guimarães PE, et al (2000) The ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA lineages. Am J Hum Genet 67(2):444–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bravi C, Sans M, Bailliet G, et al (1997) Characterization of mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes in a Uruguayan population of African ancestry. Hum Biol 69(5):641–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Martínez-Cruzado J, Toro-Labrador G, Viera-Vera J; et al (2005) Reconstructing the population history of Puerto Rico by means of mtDNA phylogeographic analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol 128(1):131–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sans M, Merriwether D, Hidalgo PC, et al (2006) Population structure and admixture in Cerro Largo, Uruguay, based on blood markers and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms. Am J Hum Biol 18(4):513–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Bonilla C, Bertoni B, González S, et al (2004) Substantial Native American female contribution to the population of Tacuarembó, Uruguay, reveals past episodes of sex-biased gene flow. Am J Hum Biol 16(3):289–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Salzano FM, Freire-Maia N (1970) Problems in human biology: a study of Brazilian populations. Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 200 pGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Vergolino-Henry A, Figueiredo AN (1990) A presença africana na Amazônia colonial: uma notícia histórica. Belém, Arquivo Público do ParáGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Marrero A, Silva-Junior W, Bravi C, et al (2007) Demographic and evolutionary trajectories of the Guarani and Kaingang natives of Brazil. Am J Phys Anthropol 132(2):301–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Gonçalves V, Carvalho C, Bortolini M, et al (2008) The phylogeography of African Brazilians. Hum Hered 65(1):23–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Palha Tde J, Ribeiro-Rodrigues EM, Ribeiro-dos-Santos A, et al (2011) Male ancestry structure and interethnic admixture in African-descent communities from the Amazon as revealed by Y-chromosome Strs. Am J Phys Anthropol 144(3):471–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Bortolini MC, Da Silva WA Jr, De Guerra DC, et al (1999) African-derived South American populations: a history of symmetrical and asymmetrical matings according to sex revealed by bi- and uni-parental genetic markers. Am J Hum Biol 11(4):551–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Flores C, Maca-Meyer N, Pérez JA, et al (2003) A predominant European ancestry of paternal lineages from Canary Islanders. Ann Hum Genet 67(Pt2):138–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Maca-Meyer N, Villar J, Pérez-Méndez L, et al (2004) A tale of aborigines, conquerors and slaves: Alu insertion polymorphisms and the peopling of Canary Islands. Ann Hum Genet 68(Pt6):600–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Maca-Meyer N, Cabrera V, Arnay M, et al (2005) Mitochondrial DNA diversity in 17th-18th century remains from Tenerife (Canary Islands). Am J Phys Anthropol 127(4):418–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Pinto F, González A, Hernández M, et al (1996) Genetic relationship between the Canary Islanders and their African and Spanish ancestors inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Ann Hum Genet 60(Pt4):321–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hammer M, Karafet T, Park H, et al (2006) Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes. J Hum Genet 51(1):47–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hanihara T (2009) Metric and nonmetric dental variation and the population structure of the Ainu. Am J Hum Biol 22(2):163–171Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Jaini R, Naruse T, Kanga U, et al (2002) Molecular diversity of the HLA-A*19 group of alleles in North Indians: possible oriental influence. Tissue Antigens 59(6):487–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Rasteiro R, Chikhi L (2009) Revisiting the peopling of Japan: an admixture perspective. J Hum Genet 54(6):349–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Shi H, Zhong H, Peng Y, et al (2008) Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations. BMC Biol 6:45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Helgason A, Sigurðardóttir S, Nicholson J, et al (2000) Estimating Scandinavian and Gaelic ancestry in the male settlers of Iceland. Am J Hum Genet 67(3):697–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Helgason A, Hickey E, Goodacre S, et al (2001) mtDna and the islands of the North Atlantic: estimating the proportions of Norse and Gaelic ancestry. Am J Hum Genet 68(3):723–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Thompson E (1973) The Icelandic admixture problem. Ann Hum Genet 37(1):69–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wijsman E (1984) Techniques for estimating genetic admixture and applications to the problem of the origin of the Icelanders and the Ashkenazi Jews. Hum Genet 67(4):441–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    McEvoy B, Brady C, Moore LT, et al (2006) The scale and nature of Viking settlement in Ireland from Y-chromosome admixture analysis. Eur J Hum Genet 14(12):1288–1294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kayser M, Choi Y, Van Oven M, et al (2008) The impact of the Austronesian expansion: evidence from mtDNA and Y chromosome diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Mol Biol Evol 25(7):1362–1374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Li H, Wen B, Chen SJ, et al (2008) Paternal genetic affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic populations. BMC Evol Biol 8:146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Mona S, Grunz K, Brauer S, et al (2009) Genetic admixture history of Eastern Indonesia as revealed by Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analysis. Mol Biol Evol 26(8):1865–1877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ohashi J, Yoshida M, Ohtsuka R, et al (2000) Analysis of HLADRB1 polymorphism in the Gidra of Papua New Guinea. Hum Biol 72(2):337–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ohashi J, Naka I, Tokunaga K, et al (2006) Brief communication: mitochondrial DNA variation suggests extensive gene flow from Polynesian ancestors to indigenous Melanesians in the northwestern Bismarck Archipelago. Am J Phys Anthropol 130(4):551–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Berniell-Lee G, Plaza S, Bosch E, et al (2008) Admixture and sexual bias in the population settlement of La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). Am J Phys Anthropol 136(1):100–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Dubut V, Murail P, Pech N, et al (2009) Inter- and extra-Indian admixture and genetic diversity in reunion island revealed by analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Ann Hum Genet 73(Pt 3):314–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Tofanelli S, Bertoncini S, Castrì L, et al (2009) On the origins and admixture of Malagasy: new evidence from high-resolution analyses of paternal and maternal lineages. Mol Biol Evol 26(9):2109–2124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Chiaroni J, Touinssi M, Frassati C, et al (2004) Genetic characterization of the population of Grande Comore Island (Njazidja) according to major blood groups. Hum Biol 76(4):527–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gourjon G, Boëtsch G, Degioanni A, et al (2011) Gender and population history: Sex bias revealed by studying genetic admixture of Ngazidja population (Comoro Archipelago). Am J Phys Anthropol 144(4):653–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Msaidie S, Ducourneau A, Boëtsch G, et al (2011) Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean. Eur J Hum Genet 19(1):89–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Diamond J, Bellwood P (2003) Farmers and their languages: the first expansions. Science 300(5619):597–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Friedlaender JS, Friedlaender FR, Hodgson JA, et al (2007) Melanesian mtDNA complexity. PLoS One 2(2):e248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Holden C (2008) Evolutionary genetics. Polynesians took the express train through Melanesia to the Pacific. Science 319(5861):270Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Hunley K, Dunn M, Lindström E, et al (2008) Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia. PLoS Genet 4(10):e1000239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lansing J, Cox M, Downey SS, et al (2007) Coevolution of languages and genes on the island of Sumba, eastern Indonesia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16022–16026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Oppenheimer S, Richards M (2001) Fast trains, slow boats, and the ancestry of the Polynesian islanders. Sci Prog 84(Pt3):157–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Quintana-Murci L, Krausz C, Zerjal T, et al (2001) Y-chromosome lineages trace diffusion of people and languages in southwestern Asia. Am J Hum Genet 68(2):537–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Sykes B, Leiboff A, Low-Beer J, et al (1995) The origins of the Polynesians: an interpretation from mitochondrial lineage analysis. Am J Hum Genet 57(6):1463–1475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Terrell J, Kelly K, Rainbird P (2001) Foregone conclusions? In Search of “Papuans” and “Austronesians”. Curr Anthropol 42(1):97–124Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Trejaut J, Kivisild T, Loo JH, et al (2005) Traces of archaic mitochondrial lineages persist in Austronesian-speaking Formosan populations. PLoS Biol 3(8):e247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Diamond JM (2000) Taiwan’s gift to the world. Nature 403(6771):709–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Gray RD, Jordan FM (2000) Language trees support the express-train sequence of Austronesian expansion. Nature 405(6790):1052–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Gray RD, Drummond AJ, Greenhill SJ (2009) Language phylogenies reveal expansion pulses and pauses in Pacific settlement. Science 323(5913):479–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Green RC (2002) Pacific archaeology: assessments and prospects. In: Proceedings of the International Conference for the 50th Anniversary of the First Lapita Excavation. Service des musées et du patrimoine, Koné, Nouméa, pp 95–120Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Sheppard PJ (2011) Lapita Colonization across the Near/Remote Oceania Boundary. Current Anthropology 52(6):799–840Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Kayser M, Brauer S, Cordaux R, et al (2006) Melanesian and Asian origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y chromosome gradients across the Pacific. Mol Biol Evol 23(11):2234–2244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Pugach I, Matveyev R, Wollstein A, et al (2011) Dating the age of admixture via wavelet transform analysis of genome-wide data. Genome Biol 12(2):R19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Price AL, Tandon A, Patterson N, et al (2009) Sensitive detection of chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry in admixed populations. PLoS Genet 5(6):e1000519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Soares P, Rito T, Trejaut J, et al (2011) Ancient voyaging and Polynesian origins. Am J Hum Genet 88(2):239–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Abi-Rached L, Jobin MJ, Kulkarni S, et al (2011) The shaping of modern human immune systems by multiregional admixture with archaic humans. Science 334(6052):89–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Capredon M, Sanchez-Mazas A, Guitard E, et al (2012) The Arabo-Islamic migrations in Madagascar: first genetic study of the GM system in three Malagasy populations. Int J Immunogenet 39(2):161–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Briggs AW, Good JM, Green RE, et al (2009) Targeted retrieval and analysis of five Neandertal mtDNA genomes. Science 325(5938):318–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Hublin J (2009) The origin of Neandertals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(38):16022–16027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Serre D, Langaney A, Chech M, et al (2004) No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans. PLoS Biol 2(3):E57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wall JD (2000) Detecting ancient admixture in humans using sequence polymorphism data. Genetics 154(3):1271–1279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Brown, P, T. Sutikna, et al (2004) A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431(7012):1055–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Brown P (2012) LB1 and LB6 Homo floresiensis are not modern human (Homo sapiens) cretins. J Hum Evol 62(2):201–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Morwood MJ, Brown P, Jatmiko, et al (2005) Further evidence for small-bodied hominins from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 437(7061):1012–1017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Grün R, Stringer C, McDermott F, et al (2005) U-series and ESR analyses of bones and teeth relating to the human burials from Skhul. J Hum Evol 49(3):316–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Krause J, Orlando L, Serre D, et al (2007) Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia. Nature 449(7164):902–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Wall JD, Lohmueller K, Plagnol V (2009) Detecting ancient admixture and estimating demographic parameters in multiple human populations. Mol Biol Evol 26(8):1823–1827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Cyran KA, Kimmel M (2005) Interactions of neanderthals and modern humans: what can be inferred from mitochondrial DNA? Math Biosci Eng 2(3):487–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Swisher CC, Rink WJ, Antón SC, et al (1996) Latest Homo erectus of Java: potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in southeast Asia. Science 274(5294):1870–1874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Yokoyama Y, Falguères C, Sémah F, et al (2008). Gamma-ray spectrometric dating of late Homo erectus skulls from Ngandong and Sambungmacan, Central Java, Indonesia. J Hum Evol 55(2):274–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Indriati E, Swisher CC, Lepre C, et al (2011) The age of the 20 meter Solo River terrace, Java, Indonesia and the survival of Homo erectus in Asia. PLoS One 6(6):e21562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Price DT (2000). Europe’s first farmers: an introduction. In: Price TD (ed) Europe’s first farmers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Deguilloux MF, Leahy R, Pemonge MH, et al (2012) European neolithization and ancient DNA:an assessment. Evol Anthropol 21(1):24–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Dupanloup I, Bertorelle G, Chikhi L, et al (2004) Estimating the impact of prehistoric admixture on the genome of Europeans. Mol Biol Evol 21(7):1361–1372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ammerman A, Cavalli-Sforza LL (1984). The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of Populations in Europe. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 200 pGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Barbujani G, Sokal R, Oden NL (1995) Indo-European origins: a computer-simulation test of five hypotheses. Am J Phys Anthropol 96(2):109–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Sokal R, Oden NL, Wilson C (1991) Genetic evidence for the spread of agriculture in Europe by demic diffusion. Nature 351(6322):143–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Arias P (1999) The Origins of the Neolithic Along the Atlantic Coast of Continental Europe: a survey. J World Prehist 13(4):403–464Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Gronenborn D (1999) AVariation on a Basic Theme: The Transition to Farming in Southern Central Europe. J World Prehist 13(2):123–210Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Mazurié De Keroualin K (2003). Genese Et Diffusion De L’Agriculture En Europe: Agriculteurs, Chasseurs, Pasteurs. Errance, Paris, 184pGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Guilaine J, Manen C (2007) From Mesolithic to early Neolithic in the western Mediterranean. Proc Br Acad 144:21–51Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Bocquet-Appel J-P, Najia S, Vander Lindenb M, et al (2009) Detection of diffusion and contact zones of early farming in Europe from the space-time distribution of 14C dates. J Archeol Sci 36:807–820Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Bodmer WF, Cavalli-Sforza LL (1976) Genetics, evolution, and man. WH Freeman éd, San Francisco, 782 pGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Zvelebil M (1998) Genetic and cultural diversity of Europe: a comment on Cavalli-Sforza. J Anthropol Res 54:411–417Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Richards M, Côrte-Real H, Forster P, et al (1996) Paleolithic and neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial gene pool. Am J Hum Genet 59(1):185–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Belle E, Landry P, Barbujani G (2006) Origins and evolution of the Europeans’ genome: evidence from multiple microsatellite loci. Proc Biol Sci 273(1594):1595–1602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Chikhi L, Destro-Bisol G, Bertorelle G, et al (1998) Clines of nuclear DNA markers suggest a largely neolithic ancestry of the European gene pool. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95(15):9053–9058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Chikhi L, Destro-Bisol G, Pascali V, et al (1998) Clinal variation in the nuclear DNA of Europeans. Hum Biol 70(4):643–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Chikhi L, Nichols R, Barbujani G, et al (2002) Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99(17):11008–11013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Menozzi P, Piazza A, Cavalli-Sforza L (1978) Synthetic maps of human gene frequencies in Europeans. Science 201(4358):786–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Rosser Z, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, et al (2000) Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language. Am J Hum Genet 67(6):1526–1543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, et al (2000) The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective. Science 290(5494):1155–1159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Balaresque P, Bowden GR, Adams SM, et al (2010) A predominantly neolithic origin for European paternal lineages. PLoS Biol 8(1):e1000285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Pinhasi R, Fort J, Ammerman A (2005) Tracing the origin and spread of agriculture in Europe. PLoS Biol 3(12):e410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Barbujani G, Chikhi L (2006) Population genetics: DNAs from the European Neolithic. Heredity 97(2):84–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Maliarchuk BA (1998) Mitochondrial DNA markers and genetic demographic processes in neolithic Europe. Genetika 34(7):1009–1012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Barbujani G, Bertorelle G (2001) Genetics and the population history of Europe. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(1):22–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Pereira L, Dupanloup I, Rosser ZH, et al (2001) Y-chromosome mismatch distributions in Europe. Mol Biol Evol 18(7):1259–1271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Dupanloup I, Pereira L, Bertorelle G, et al (2003) A recent shift from polygyny to monogamy in humans is suggested by the analysis of worldwide Y-chromosome diversity. J Mol Evol 57(1):85–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Gamba C, Fernández E, Tirado M, et al (2012) Ancient DNA from an Early Neolithic Iberian population supports a pioneer colonization by first farmers. Mol Ecol 21(1):45–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Lacan M, Keyser C, Ricaut FX, et al (2011) Ancient DNA suggests the leading role played by men in the Neolithic dissemination. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(45):18255–18259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Rasteiro R, Bouttier PA, Sousa V, et al (2012) Investigating sexbiased migration during the Neolithic transition in Europe, using an explicit spatial simulation framework. Proc Biol Sci [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Bowles GT (1977) The people of Asia. Willmer Brother’s Limited, London, 414 pGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Berkman C, Dinc H, Sekeryapan C, et al (2008) Alu insertion polymorphisms and an assessment of the genetic contribution of Central Asia to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans. Am J Phys Anthropol 136(1):11–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Comas D, Calafell F, Mateu E, et al (1998) Trading genes along the silk road: mtDNA sequences and the origin of central Asian populations. Am J Hum Genet 63(6):1824–1838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Comas D, Plaza S, Wells RS, et al (2004) Admixture, migrations, and dispersals in Central Asia: evidence from maternal DNA lineages. Eur J Hum Genet 12(6):495–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Di Benedetto G, Ergüven A, Stenico M, et al (2001) DNA diversity and population admixture in Anatolia. Am J Phys Anthropol 115(2):144–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Heyer E, Balaresque P, Jobling MA, et al (2009) Genetic diversity and the emergence of ethnic groups in Central Asia. BMC Genet 10:49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Li H, Cho K, Kidd JR, et al (2009) Genetic landscape of Eurasia and “admixture” in Uyghurs. Am J Hum Genet 85(6):934–937; author reply 937–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Wells R, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, et al (2001) The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(18):10244–10249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Xiao FX, Yang JF, Cassiman JJ, et al (2002) Diversity at eight polymorphic Alu insertion loci in Chinese populations shows evidence for European admixture in an ethnic minority population from northwest China. Hum Biol 74(4):555–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Xu S, Huang W, Qian J, et al (2008) Analysis of genomic admixture in Uyghur and its implication in mapping strategy. Am J Hum Genet 82(4):883–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Xu S, Jin L (2008) A genome-wide analysis of admixture in Uyghurs and a high-density admixture map for disease-gene discovery. Am J Hum Genet 83(3):322–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Yang L, Tan S, Yu H, et al (2008) Gene admixture in ethnic populations in upper part of Silk Road revealed by mtDNA polymorphism. Sci China C Life Sci 51(5):435–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Brunet F (2002) Asie centrale: vers une redéfinition des complexes culturels de la fin du Pléistocène et des débuts de l’Holocène. Paléorient 28(2):9–24Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Harris D (1997). The Spread of Neolithic Agriculture from the Levant to Western Central Asia. The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication (Proceedings of the Harlan Symposium), SyriaGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Quintana-Murci L, Chaix R, Wells RS, et al (2004) Where west meets east: the complex mtDNA landscape of the southwest and Central Asian corridor. Am J Hum Genet 74(5):827–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Irwin JA, Ikramov A, Saunier J, et al (2010) The mtDNA composition of Uzbekistan: a microcosm of Central Asian patterns. Int J Legal Med 124(3):195–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Mackerras C (1972) The Uighur Empire according to the T’ang Dynastic Histories. Australian National University Press, Canberra, Australia, 226 pGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Yao YG, Kong QP, Wang CY, et al (2004) Different matrilineal contributions to genetic structure of ethnic groups in the silk road region in china. Mol Biol Evol 21(12):2265–2280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Yao YG, Lü XM, Luo HR, et al (2000) Gene admixture in the silk road region of China: evidence from mtDNA and melanocortin 1 receptor polymorphism. Genes Genet Syst 75(4):173–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Cavalli-Sforza L, Menozzi P, Piazza A (1994) The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 428 pGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Pérez-Lezaun A, Calafell F, Comas D, et al (1999) Sex-specific migration patterns in Central Asian populations, revealed by analysis of Y-chromosome short tandem repeats and mtDNA. Am J Hum Genet 65(1):208–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Chaix R, Austerlitz F, Hegay T, et al (2008) Genetic traces of east-to-west human expansion waves in Eurasia. Am J Phys Anthropol 136(3):309–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Calafell F, Comas D, Pérez-Lezaun A, et al (2000). Genetics and population history of Central Asia. In: Boyle CRK (ed) Archaeogenetics: DNA and the population prehistory of Europe. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, pp 259–266Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Lalueza-Fox C, Sampietro ML, Gilbert MT, et al (2004) Unravelling migrations in the steppe: mitochondrial DNA sequences from ancient central Asians. Proc Biol Sci 271(1542):941–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Ismagulov O (1970). The population of Kazakhstan from the epoch of Bronze up to modern time. Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Science of Kazakhstan, Alma AtaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Société d'anthropologie de Paris et Springer-Verlag France 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UMR 7269 LAMPEA Aix-Marseille Univ - CNRS - MMSHAix-en-Provence cedex 02France

Personalised recommendations