KI - Künstliche Intelligenz

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 223–231 | Cite as

Plan-Based Control of Joint Human-Robot Activities

  • Alexandra Kirsch
  • Thibault Kruse
  • E. Akin Sisbot
  • Rachid Alami
  • Martin Lawitzky
  • Dražen Brščić
  • Sandra Hirche
  • Patrizia Basili
  • Stefan Glasauer


Cognition in technical systems is especially relevant for the interaction with humans. We present a newly emerging application for autonomous robots: companion robots that are not merely machines performing tasks for humans, but assistants that achieve joint goals with humans. This collaborative aspect entails specific challenges for AI and robotics. In this article, we describe several planning and action-related problems for human-robot collaboration and point out the challenges to implement cognitive robot assistants.


Task Planning Plan Execution Navigation Task Robot Assistant Robot Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Alami R, Clodic A, Montreuil V, Sisbot EA, Chatila R (2006) Toward human-aware robot task planning. In: AAAI spring symposium Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alili S, Alami R, Montreuil V (2009) A task planner for an autonomous social robot. In: Distributed autonomous robotic systems (DARS 08). Springer, Berlin Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Basili P, Huber M, Brandt T, Hirche S, Glasauer S (2009) Investigating human-human approach and hand-over. In: Human centered robot systems: cognition, interaction, technology, pp 151–160 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen P, Levesque H (1991) Teamwork. Nous 25(4):487–512 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dautenhahn K, Walters M, Woods S, Koay KL, Nehaniv CL, Sisbot EA, Alami R, Siméon T (2006) How may I serve you?: a robot companion approaching a seated person in a helping context. In: ACM SIGCHI/SIGART international conference on human-robot interaction, HRI, Utah, USA, March 2006, pp 172–179 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Firby J (1987) An investigation into reactive planning in complex domains. In: Proceedings of the sixth national conference on artificial intelligence, Seattle, WA, pp 202–206 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goebl M, Althoff M, Buss M, Färber G, Hecker F, Heissing B, Kraus S, Nagel R, Leon FP, Rattei F, Russ M, Schweitzer M, Thuy M, Wang C, Wünsche HJ (2008) Design and capabilities of the Munich cognitive automobile. In: Proc. IEEE intelligent vehicles symposium Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hansen ST, Svenstrup M, Andersen HJ, Bak T (2009) Adaptive human aware navigation based on motion pattern analysis. In: Robot and human interactive communication, 2009, Toyama, Japan, Sept-Oct 2009 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kirsch A (2009) Robot learning language—integrating programming and learning for cognitive systems. Robot Auton Syst 57(9):943–954 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kirsch A, Kruse T, Mösenlechner L (2009) An integrated planning and learning framework for human-robot interaction. In: 4th workshop on planning and plan execution for real-world systems (held in conjunction with ICAPS 09) Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koay KL, Sisbot EA, Syrdal DS, Walters ML, Dautenhahn K, Alami R (2007) Exploratory studies of a robot approaching a person in the context of handing over an object. In: Proc. AAAI—spring symposium 2007: multidisciplinary collaboration for socially assistive robotics Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kosuge K, Yoshida H, Fukuda T (1993) Dynamic control for robot-human collaboration. In: 2nd IEEE international workshop on robot and human communication, pp 398–401 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kruse T, Kirsch A, Sisbot EA, Alami R (2010) Dynamic generation and execution of human aware navigation plans. In: Proceedings of the ninth international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems (AAMAS) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lawitzky M, Mörtl A, Hirche S (2010) Human-robot cooperative task sharing. In: 19th IEEE international symposium in robot and human interactive communication (RO-MAN). Accepted for publication Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McDermott D (1993) A reactive plan language. Technical report, Yale University, Computer Science Department Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Montemerlo M, Becker J, Bhat S, Dahlkamp H, Dolgov D, Ettinger S, Haehnel D, Hilden T, Hoffmann G, Huhnke B, Johnston D, Klumpp S, Langer D, Levandowski A, Levinson J, Marcil J, Orenstein D, Paefgen J, Penny I, Petrovskaya A, Pflueger M, Stanek G, Stavens D, Vogt A, Thrun S (2008) Junior: The Stanford entry in the Urban Challenge. J Field Robot 25(9):569–597 zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Müller A, Kirsch A, Beetz M (2007) Transformational planning for everyday activity. In: Proceedings of the 17th international conference on automated planning and scheduling (ICAPS’07), Providence, USA, September 2007, pp 248–255 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Müller J, Stachniss C, Arras KO, Burgard W (2008) Socially inspired motion planning for mobile robots in populated environments. In: International conference on cognitive systems (CogSys’08), Karlsruhe, Germany Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nori F, Frezza R (2004) Nonlinear control by a finite set of motion primitives. In: Proceedings of the 6th IFAC symposium on nonlinear control systems Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rosenthal S, Biswas J, Veloso M (2010) An effective personal mobile robot agent through a symbiotic human-robot interaction. In: Proceedings of the ninth international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems (AAMAS) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Satake S, Kanda T, Glas DF, Imai M, Ishiguro H, Hagita N (2009) How to approach humans? strategies for social robots to initiate interaction. In: ACM/IEEE international conference on human-robot interaction Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarter NB, Woods DD, Billings CE (1997) Automation surprises. In: Salvendy G (ed) Handbook of human factors & ergonomics, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sisbot EA, Marin-Urias LF, Alami R, Simeon T (2007) A human aware mobile robot motion planner. IEEE Trans Robot 23:874–883 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Srinivasa S, Ferguson D, Helfrich C, Berenson D, Romea AC, Diankov R, Gallagher G, Hollinger G, Kuffner J, Vandeweghe JM (2010) Herb: a home exploring robotic butler. Auton Robots 28(1):5–20 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tadokoro S, Hayashi M, Manabe Y, Nakami Y, Takamori T (1995) On motion planning of mobile robots which coexist and cooperate with human. In: Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, vol 2. IEEE Press, New York, pp 518–523 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tan YK, Kumar DL, Jiang R, Li L, Hoe KE, Yu X, Dong L, Wong CY, Li H (2009) An interactive robot butler. In: Jacko J (ed) Human-computer interaction. Novel interaction methods and techniques. Springer, Berlin, pp 385–394 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tenorth M, Bandouch J, Beetz M (2009) The TUM kitchen data set of everyday manipulation activities for motion tracking and action recognition. In: IEEE int. workshop on tracking humans for the evaluation of their motion in image sequences (THEMIS). In conjunction with ICCV2009 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wojtara T, Uchihara M, Murayama H, Shimoda S, Sakai S, Fujimoto H, Kimura H (2009) Human-robot collaboration in precise positioning of a three-dimensional object. Automatica 45(2):333–342 zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandra Kirsch
    • 1
  • Thibault Kruse
    • 1
  • E. Akin Sisbot
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rachid Alami
    • 2
    • 3
  • Martin Lawitzky
    • 4
  • Dražen Brščić
    • 4
  • Sandra Hirche
    • 4
  • Patrizia Basili
    • 5
  • Stefan Glasauer
    • 5
  1. 1.Institut für InformatikTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  2. 2.CNRSLAASToulouseFrance
  3. 3.UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE, LAASUniversité de ToulouseToulouseFrance
  4. 4.Department of Electrical Engineering and Information TechnologyTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  5. 5.Clinical Neurosciences and Department of NeurologyLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations