Annals of Microbiology

, Volume 69, Issue 3, pp 201–209 | Cite as

Review of inulinase production using solid-state fermentation

  • Deblina DasEmail author
  • Ramananda Bhat M
  • Raja Selvaraj
Review Article


The purpose of the present study is to critically analyze the recent literature covering the production of inulinase enzyme from various sources by solid-state fermentation and discuss various approaches to increase its production in solid-state fermentation, purification, and its properties. The review deals with the solid-state fermentative production of inulinase production. Inulinases have many applications in industries, such as for the production of ultra-high fructose syrup, biofuels, lactic acid, citric acid, and single-cell oil. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is more economic, requires smaller vessels, lowers water intake, reduces wastewater treatments, higher product yield, lesser chance of bacterial contamination, and lowers energy consumption. Furthermore, the crude products obtained from SSF can be directly used as the source of enzyme for biotransformation. Although many reports are available on a wide range of microbes which produces inulinases by SSF, it is important to isolate novel microbes for its production. Also, extensive research is going on to exploit unexplored sources for SSF. Higher yield of inulinases can be achieved by bioreactor modeling and proper monitoring of physical and chemical parameters in SSF.


Inulin Inulinase Optimization Substrate Solid state fermentation 



The authors wish to express their gratitude for the support extended by the authorities of Manipal Institute of Technology (MIT), Manipal, Karnataka, India, in carrying out this research work in Department of Biotechnology.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

There was no involvement of human and animal participation in the research.

Informed consent

All the authors have gone through the manuscript and well informed about the research.


  1. Abd El Aty AA, Wehaidy HR, Mostafa FA (2014) Optimization of inulinase production from low cost substrates using Plackett–Burman and Taguchi methods. Carbohydr Polym 102:261–268Google Scholar
  2. Al-Dabbagh YN, Mahmood WA (2015) Effect of carbon, nitrogen and pH on inulinase production from local isolate of Aspergillus niger. Zanco J Pure Appl Aci 27(3):1–8Google Scholar
  3. Astolfi V, Joris J, Verlindo R, Oliveira JV, Maugeri F, Mazutti MA, Oliveira DD, Treichel H (2011) Operation of a fixed-bed bioreactor in batch and fed-batch modes for production of inulinase by solid-state fermentation. Biochem Eng J 58-59:39–49Google Scholar
  4. Ayyachamy M, Khelawan K, Pillay D, Permaul K, Singh S (2007) Production of inulinase by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) peels in solid state cultivation. Lett Appl Microbiol 45(4):439–444Google Scholar
  5. Behera SS, Ray RC (2016) Solid state fermentation for production of microbial cellulases: recent advances and improvement strategies. Int J Biol Macromol 86:656–669Google Scholar
  6. Bhargav S, Panda BP, Ali M, Javed S (2008) Solid-state fermentation : an overview. Chem Biochem Eng Q 22(1):49–70Google Scholar
  7. Canli O, Kurbanoglu EB (2012) Application of low magnetic field on inulinase production by Geotrichum candidum under solid state fermentation using leek as substrate. Toxicol Ind Health 28(10):894–900Google Scholar
  8. Chen H (2013) Modern solid state fermentation, theory and practice. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1–324Google Scholar
  9. Chen HQ, Chen XM, Li Y, Wang J, Jin ZU, Xu XM, Zhao JW, Chen TX, Xie ZJ (2009) Purification and characterisation of exo- and endo-inulinase from Aspergillus ficuum JNSP5-06. Food Chem 115(4):1206–1212Google Scholar
  10. Cho YJ, Yun JW (2002) Purification and characterization of an endoinulinase from Xanthomonas oryzae no . 5. Process Biochem 37(11):1325–1331Google Scholar
  11. Danial EN, Ayaz NOA, Alnahdi HSO (2015) Production of inulinase by free and immobilized cells of Penicillium funiculosum. Braz Arch Biol Technol 58(4):636–642Google Scholar
  12. Dilipkumar M, Rajasimman M, Rajamohan N (2011a) Application of statistical design for the production of inulinase by streptomyces sp . using pressmud. Front Chem Sci Eng 5(4):463–470Google Scholar
  13. Dilipkumar M, Rajasimman M, Rajamohan N (2011b) Optimization of Inulinase production from garlic by Streptomyces sp. in solid state fermentation using statistical designs. Biotechnol Res Int 2011:1–7Google Scholar
  14. Dilipkumar M, Rajamohan N, Rajasimman M (2013a) Inulinase production in a packed bed reactor by solid state fermentation. Carbohydr Polym 96(1):196–199Google Scholar
  15. Dilipkumar M, Rajasimman M, Rajamohan N (2013b) Enhanced inulinase production by Streptomyces sp . in solid state fermentation through statistical designs. 3 Biotech 3(6):509–515Google Scholar
  16. Dilipkumar M, Rajasimman M, Rajamohan N (2014) Utilization of copra waste for the solid state fermentatative production of inulinase in batch and packed bed reactors. Carbohydr Polym 102:662–668Google Scholar
  17. Dinarvand M, Rezaee M, Masomian M, Jazayeri SD, Zareian M, Abbasi S, Ariff AB (2013) Effect of C/N ratio and media optimization through response surface methodology on simultaneous productions of intra- and extracellular inulinase and invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. Biomed Res Int 2013:1–13Google Scholar
  18. Ettalibi M, Baratti JC (1987) Purification, properties and comparison of invertase , exoinulinases and endoinulinases of Aspergillus ficuum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 26:13–20Google Scholar
  19. Fernandes MRVS, Jiang B (2013) Fungal inulinases as potential enzymes for application in the food industry. Adv J Food Sci Technol 5(8):1031–1042Google Scholar
  20. Ge XY, Zhang WG (2005) A shortcut to the production of high ethanol concentration from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Food Technol Biotechnol 43(3):241–246Google Scholar
  21. Golunski S, Silva MF, Marques CT, Rosseto V, Kaizer RR, Mossi AJ, Rigo D, Dallago RM, Luccio MD, Treichel H (2017) Purification of inulinases by changing the ionic strength of the medium and precipitation with alcohols. An Acad Bras Ciênc 89(1):57–63Google Scholar
  22. Guo N, Gong F, Chi Z, Sheng J, Li J (2009) Enhanced inulinase production in solid state fermentation by a mutant of the marine yeast Pichia guilliermondii using surface response methodology and inulin hydrolysis. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36(4):499–507Google Scholar
  23. Housseiny MM (2014) Production of an endoinulinase from Aspergillus niger AUMC 9375 , by solid state fermentation of agricultural wastes, with purification and characterization of the free and immobilized enzyme. J Microbiol 52(5):389–398Google Scholar
  24. Kango N, Jain SC (2011) Production and properties of microbial Inulinases : recent advances. Food Biotechnol 25(3):165–212Google Scholar
  25. Kapilan R (2015) Solid state fermentation for microbial products: a review. Arch Appl Sci Res 7(8):21–25Google Scholar
  26. Krishna C (2005) Solid-state fermentation systems—an overview. Crit Rev Biotechnol 25:1–30Google Scholar
  27. Leelaram S, Sivanesh NE, Surianarayanan M, Deepa PR, Ashwath Balaje S (2016) Effect of feeding strategies on inulinase production analyzed in a biocalorimeter. Process Biochem 51(6):692–703Google Scholar
  28. Lima DM, Fernandes P, Nascimento DS, de CL FRR, de Assis SA (2011) Fructose syrup: a biotechnology asset. Food Technol Biotechnol 49(4):424–434Google Scholar
  29. Manan MA, Webb C (2017) Design aspects of solid state fermentation as applied to microbial bioprocessing. J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng 4(1):1–25Google Scholar
  30. Mazutti M, Bender JP, Treichel H, Di Luccio M (2006) Optimization of inulinase production by solid-state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as substrate. Enzym Microb Technol 39(1):56–59Google Scholar
  31. Mazutti M, Ceni G, Di Luccio M, Treichel H (2007) Production of inulinase by solid-state fermentation: effect of process parameters on production and preliminary characterization of enzyme preparations. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 30(5):297–304Google Scholar
  32. Mazutti MA, Zabot G, Boni G, Skovronski A, de Oliveira D, Di Luccio M, Rodrigues MI, Treichel H, Maugeri F (2010a) Kinetics of inulinase production by solid-state fermentation in a packed-bed bioreactor. Food Chem 120(1):163–173Google Scholar
  33. Mazutti MA, Zabot G, Boni G, Skovronski A, de Oliveira D, Di Luccio M, Rodrigues MI, Treichel H, Maugeri F (2010b) Optimization of inulinase production by solid-state fermentation in a packed-bed bioreactor. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 85(1):109–114Google Scholar
  34. Mensink MA, Frijlink HW, van der Voort Maarschalk K, Hinrichs WLJ (2015) Inulin, a flexible oligosaccharide I: review of its physicochemical characteristics. Carbohydr Polym 130:405–419Google Scholar
  35. Mitchell DA, Krieger N, Berovic M (2006) Solid-state fermentation bioreactors. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1–448Google Scholar
  36. Narayanan M, Srinivasan B, Gayathiri A, Ayyadurai A, Mani A (2013) Studies on the optimization and characterization for the biosynthesis of inulinase under solid state fermentation. Int J ChemTech Res 5(1):376–384Google Scholar
  37. Neagu C, Bahrim G (2011) Inulinases-a versatile tool for biotechnology. Innov Rom Food Biotechnol 9:1–11Google Scholar
  38. Onilude AA, Fadaunsi IF, Garuba EO (2012) Inulinase production by Saccharomyces sp . in solid state fermentation using wheat bran as substrate. Ann Microbiol 62(2):843–848Google Scholar
  39. Pandey A, Soccol CR, Selvakumar P, Soccol VT, Krieger N, Fontana JD (1999) Recent developments in microbial inulinases. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 81(1):35–52Google Scholar
  40. Pessoni RAB, Braga MR, de Cássia L, Figueiredo-Ribeiro R (2007) Purification and properties of exo-inulinases from Penicillium janczewskii growing on distinct carbon sources. Mycologia 99(4):493–503Google Scholar
  41. Petrova P, Velikova P, Popova L, Petrov K (2015) Direct conversion of chicory flour into L (+) -lactic acid by the highly effective inulinase producer Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 23505. Bioresour Technol 186:329–333Google Scholar
  42. Ricca E, Calabrò V, Curcio S, Iorio G (2009) Fructose production by chicory inulin enzymatic hydrolysis: a kinetic study and reaction mechanism. Process Biochem 44:466–470Google Scholar
  43. Romero-Gómez SJ, Augur C, Viniegra-González G (2000) Invertase production by Aspergillus niger in submerged and solid-state fermentation. Biotechnol Lett 22(15):1255–1258Google Scholar
  44. Sarup RS, Dhaliwal R, Puri M (2007) Partial purification and characterization of exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 for preparation of high-fructose syrup. J Microbiol Biotechnol 17(5):733–738Google Scholar
  45. Selvakumar P, Pandey A (1999) Solid state fermentation for the synthesis of inulinase from Staphylococcus sp. and Kluyveromyces marxianus. Process Biochem 34(8):851–855Google Scholar
  46. Sharma AD, Kainth S, Gill PK (2006) Inulinase production using garlic (Allium sativum) powder as a potential substrate in Streptomyces sp. J Food Eng 77(3):486–491Google Scholar
  47. Sheng J, Chi Z, Yan K, Wang X, Gong F, Li J (2009) Use of response surface methodology for optimizing process parameters for high inulinase production by the marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a in solid-state fermentation and hydrolysis of inulin. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 32(3):333–339Google Scholar
  48. Singh RS, Chauhan K (2016) Production, purification, characterization and applications of fungal inulinases. Curr Biotechnol 5(3):1–20Google Scholar
  49. Singh P, Gill PK (2006) Production of Inulinases : recent advances. Food Technol Biotechnol 44(2):151–162Google Scholar
  50. Singh RS, Singh RP (2010) Production of fructooligosaccharides from inulin by endoinulinases and their prebiotic potential. Food Technol Biotechnol 48(4):435–450Google Scholar
  51. Singh RS, Chauhan K, Kennedy JF (2017) A panorama of bacterial inulinases: characterization and industrial applications. Int J Biol Macromol 96:312–322Google Scholar
  52. Singh RS, Chauhan K, Jindal A (2018a) Response surface optimization of solid state fermentation for inulinase production from Penicillium oxalicum using corn. J Food Sci Technol 55(7):2533–2540Google Scholar
  53. Singh RS, Chauhan K, Singh J, Pandey A, Larroche C (2018b) Solid-state fermentation of carrot pomace for the production of inulinase by Penicillium oxalicum BGPUP-4. Food Technol Biotechnol 56(1):31–39Google Scholar
  54. Singhania RR, Patel AK, Soccol CR, Pandey A (2009) Recent advances in solid-state fermentation. Biochem Eng J 44(1):13–18Google Scholar
  55. Sivapathasekaran C, Sen R (2017) Origin, properties, production and purification of microbial surfactants as molecules with immense commercial potential. Tenside Surfactant Deterg 54(2):92–107Google Scholar
  56. Trivedi S, Divecha J, Shah A (2012) Optimization of inulinase production by a newly isolated Aspergillus tubingensis CR16 using low cost substrates. Carbohydr Polym 90(1):483–490Google Scholar
  57. Xiong C, Jinhua W, Dongsheng L (2007) Optimization of solid-state medium for the production of inulinase by Kluyveromyces S120 using response surface methodology. Biochem Eng J 34(2):179–184Google Scholar
  58. Yan Liu X, Chi Z, Lei Liu G, Wang F, Madzak C, Ming Chi Z (2010) Inulin hydrolysis and citric acid production from inulin using the surface-engineered Yarrowia lipolytica displaying inulinase. Metab Eng 12(5):469–476Google Scholar
  59. Zhao CH, Zhang T, Li M, Chi ZM (2010) Single cell oil production from hydrolysates of inulin and extract of tubers of Jerusalem artichoke by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa TJY15a. Process Biochem 45(7):1121–1126Google Scholar
  60. Zhu Z, He J, Liu G, Barba FJ, Koubaa M, Ding L, Bals O, Grimi N, Vorobiev E (2016) Recent insights for the green recovery of inulin from plant food materials using non-conventional extraction technologies : a review. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 33:1–9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Università degli studi di Milano 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, Manipal Institute of Technology (MIT)Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE)ManipalIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology (MIT)Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE)ManipalIndia

Personalised recommendations