Annals of Microbiology

, Volume 69, Issue 9, pp 873–883 | Cite as

Pseudomonas fluorescens: a potential food spoiler and challenges and advances in its detection

  • Harsh Kumar
  • Laura Franzetti
  • Ankur Kaushal
  • Dinesh KumarEmail author
Review Article



This review focuses on the spoilage strategies used by the Pseudomonas fluorescens, and in addition, it also discusses various diagnostic approaches used for its identification in food items. Some challenges faced and advances in the detection of P. fluorescens and also discussed in this review.


An extensive literature search was performed with published work and data was analyzed in detail to meet the requirements of the objectives.


P. fluorescens are unicellular rods, with long straight or curved axis, but not helical, motility by one or more polar flagella, Gram-negative, non-spores former, stalks, or sheaths. P. fluorescens is represented by seven biotypes denoted by the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. The microbe shows wide choice of growth temperature and causes contamination and spoilage in ordinary and refrigerated food items by its enzymes and pigment production. The biofilm formation by P. fluorescens poses another serious threat to the food industries.


Molecular identification of P. fluorescens is generally done by 16S rRNA, intergenic spacer (ITS1) utilizing traditional polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Nowadays, qPCR and multiplex PCR are largely utilized in identification of P. fluorescens based on AprX gene (extracellular caseinolytic metalloprotease) in the milk and meat spoilage strains. The available methods still show some disadvantages with accuracy and specificity of detection. Rapid detection of P. fluorescens in food samples is the need of hour to improve the detection efficiency.


Pseudomonas fluorescens Spoilage Enzymes Diagnosis Advances 


Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

No studies with humans/animals have been performed by any of the authors for the purpose of this review article.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was taken from all the authors.


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Copyright information

© Università degli studi di Milano 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harsh Kumar
    • 1
  • Laura Franzetti
    • 2
  • Ankur Kaushal
    • 1
  • Dinesh Kumar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Bioengineering & Food TechnologyShoolini University of Biotechnology and Management SciencesSolanIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food, Nutrition and Environmental SciencesUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly

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