Pig farm environment as a source of beta-lactamase or AmpC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli
- 51 Downloads
The present study was undertaken to detect the occurrence of beta-lactamase-/AmpC-producing Klebsiella and Escherichia coli in healthy pigs, feed, drinking water, and pen floor or surface soil. The study also intended to detect the clonal relationship between the environmental and porcine isolates to confirm the route of transmission. Rectal swabs and environmental samples were collected from apparently healthy pigs kept in organized or backyard farms in India. The pigs had no history of antibiotic intake. Production of phenotypical beta-lactamase, associated genes, and class I integron gene was detected in E. coli and Klebsiella isolates. The phylogenetic relationship among the isolates was established on the basis of Random amplification of polymorphic DNA banding pattern. Beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella were isolated from healthy pigs (20.0%), pen floor swabs/surface soil swabs (14.0%), and drinking water (100%). Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs (14.4%), pen floor/surface soil (8.0%), and drinking water (33.3%) were detected as beta-lactamase producers. Majority of beta-lactamase-producing isolates possessed blaCTX-M-9. Further, 35 (81%) Klebsiella and all the E. coli isolates were detected as AmpC beta-lactamase ACBL producers and possessed blaAmpC. Sixteen beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella (37.20%) and 13 E. coli (86.67%) possessed class I integron. Few resistant isolates from environmental sources (surface soil swab and drinking water) and the studied pigs were detected within the same cluster of the dendrogram representing their similarities. The study indicated about the possible role of contaminated environment as a source of beta-lactamase/AmpC-producing Klebsiella and E. coli in pigs.
KeywordsESBL E. coli Environment India Klebsiella Pig
The authors provide sincere thanks to honorable Vice Chancellor, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences for the infrastructure and facilities. We also acknowledge the Director, Central Research Institute, Kasuli, HP, India for serogrouping of E. coli isolates.
The study was partially funded by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India (grant no.: BT/PR16149/NER/95/85/2015) and West Bengal State Council for Science and Technology (grant no.: 929(Sanc.)/ST/P/S and T/ 1G-25/2016).
Compliance with ethical standards
The study was approved by Institutional Biosafety Committee.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals (if applicable)
- CLSI (2014) Clinical and laboratory standards institute: performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty-fourth informational supplement, M100-S24. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 34Google Scholar
- Czekalski N, Berthold T, Caucci S, Egli A, Bürgmann H (2012) Increased levels of multiresistant bacteria and resistance genes after wastewater treatment and their dissemination into Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Front Microbiol 22:106Google Scholar
- Gori A, Espinasse F, Deplano A, Nonhoff C, Nicolas MH, Struelens MJ (1996) Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified DNA polymorphism analysis for typing extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 34:2448–2453PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hammerum AM, Larsen J, Andersen VD, Lester CH, Skovgaard Skytte TS, Hansen F, Olsen SS, Mordhorst H, Skov RL, Aarestrup FM, Agersø Y (2014) Characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli obtained from Danish pigs, pig farmers and their families from farms with high or no consumption of third-or fourth-generation cephalosporins. J Antimicrob Chemother 69:2650–2657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hower S, Phillips MC, Brodsky M, Dameron A, Tamargo MA, Salazar NC, Jackson CR, Barrett JB, Davidson M, Davis J, Mukherjee S (2013) Clonally related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), human volunteers, and a bayfront cetacean rehabilitation facility. Microb Ecol 65:1024–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kar D, Bandyopadhyay S, Bhattacharyya D, Samanta I, Mahanti A, Nanda PK, Mondal B, Dandapat P, Das AK, Dutta TK, Bandyopadhyay S (2015) Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of multidrug resistant extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from poultry and cattle in Odisha, India. Infect Gen Evol 29:82–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liebana E, Carattoli A, Coque TM, Hasman H, Magiorakos AP, Mevius D, Peixe L, Poirel L, Schuepbach-Regula G, Torneke K, Torren-Edo J (2012) Public health risks of enterobacterial isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases or AmpC β-lactamases in food and food-producing animals: an EU perspective of epidemiology, analytical methods, risk factors, and control options. Clin Infect Dis 56:1030–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mesa RJ, Blanc V, Blanch AR, Cortés P, Gonzalez JJ, Lavilla S, Miro E, Muniesa M, Saco M, Tórtola MT, Mirelis B (2006) Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in different environments (humans, food, animal farms and sewage). J Antimicrob Chemother 58:211–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- OIE (2018) Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals 2018. Available at http://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/access-online/.Accessed 15 Jan 1999 Accessed 10 Nov 2018
- Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey BK, Carter GR (1994) In Clinical veterinary microbiology. Wolfe Publishing, London, pp 21–66Google Scholar
- Tiwari CB, Arora RL (2005) Impact of AICRP on improvement in production and other economic traits of pigs. In: Joshi RK, Pal S, Birthal PS, Bantilan MCS (eds) Impact of agricultural research post-green revolution evidence from India. National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, New Delhi, pp 247–254Google Scholar
- Weill FX, Lailler R, Praud K, Kérouanton A, Fabre L, Brisabois A, Grimont PA, Cloeckaert A (2004) Emergence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (CTX-M-9)-producing multiresistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow in poultry and humans in France. J Clin Microbiol 42:5767–5773CrossRefGoogle Scholar