Potential of biofertilizers from selected Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains to assist rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica) growth under salt stress and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
- 429 Downloads
The absence of phytotoxicity is one of the most important criterions for the use of biofertilizers, and their carriers must be able to maintain their activity efficiently until used. Hence, a carrier that consisted of a mixture of rice straw and rice husk ash in a 4:1 ratio with potential biofertilizers (Rhodopseudomonas palustris TK103, PP803, and P1) were investigated with a salt sensitive rice for seed germination assay and the efficacy of the biofertilizers to ameliorate rice growth under salt stress (0.25 % NaCl) by producing 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and reducing gas emissions (CH4 and CO2). No phytotoxicity was found under optimal concentrations for any of the biofertilizers tested as the germination index (GI) in the range of 105–117 %; however, the carrier had a 94 % GI when compared with distilled water. Among the biofertilizers tested, strain PP803 was the best to ameliorate rice seedling growth in soil under salt stress, particularly on plant height and root length when compared with carrier and water controls. In a paddy field model study under microaerobic light conditions for 10 days, optimal concentrations of biofertilizers provided viable cells in the range of 6.7–6.8 log CFU mL−1 , and strain PP803 was the most effective fertilizer to produce maximum ALA (2.61 μM) and reduce 100 % CH4 and 47 % CO2 emissions. It can be concluded that the biofertilizers tested, particularly the strain PP803, could be powerful agents for use in saline paddy fields to ameliorate rice seedlings growth under salt stress and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Keywords5-Aminolevulinic acid Biofertilizer Methane emissions Rhodopseudomonas palustris Rice Saline soil
Financial support for this study was provided by Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, Prince of Songkla University (PSU) for the fiscal year 2012 and the research grant no. SCI550313S, PSU. We gratefully thank Dr. Brian Hodgson for his assistance with English.
- Dianou D, Miyaki T, Asakawa S, Moril H, Nagaoka K, Oyaizu H, Matsumoto S (2001) Methanoculleus chikugoensis sp. nov., a novel methanogenic archaeon isolated from paddy field soil in Japan, and DNA-DNA hybridization among Methanoculleus species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1663–1669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- FAO (2012) Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Food Outlook, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Ferreira EM, Castro IV (2005) Residues of the cork industry as carriers for the production of legumes inoculants. Silva Lusit 13:159–167Google Scholar
- Haskin C (2013) Determination of the concentration of atmospheric gases by gas chromatography. McNair Scholars Res J 6:36–52Google Scholar
- Kantachote D, Kornochalert N, Chaiprapat S (2010) The use of purple nonsulfur bacterium isolate P1 and fermented pineapple extract to treat latex rubber sheet wastewater for possible use as irrigation water. Afr J Microbiol Res 4:2604–2616Google Scholar
- Kantha T, Chaiyasut C, Kantachote D, Sukrong S, Muangprom A (2010) Selection of photosynthetic bacteria producing 5-aminolevulinic acid from soil of organic saline paddy fields from the Northeast region of Thailand. Afr J Microbiol Res 4:1848–1855Google Scholar
- Khalid N, Khalid H, Abdul M, Farah K, Shahid A, Kazim A (2010) Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects. Afr J Biotechnol 9:5475–5480Google Scholar
- Koh RH, Song HG (2007) Effects of application of Rhodopseudomonas sp. on seed germination and growth of tomato under axenic conditions. J Microbiol Biotech 17:1805–1810Google Scholar
- Lorlowhakarn S, Boonyanopakun K, Ellis W, Panyakul V, Vildozo V, Kasterine A (2008) Strengthening the Export Capacity of Thailand’s Organic Agriculture. National Innovation Agency (NIA), BangkokGoogle Scholar
- Nunkaew T, Kantachote D, Nitoda T, Kanzaki H, Ritchie RJ (2014) Effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-containing supernatants from selected Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains on rice growth under NaCl stress, with mediating effects on chlorophyll, photosynthetic electron transport and antioxidative enzymes. Electron J Biotechn 17:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar