Annals of Microbiology

, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 47–57 | Cite as

Muscodor tigerii sp. nov.-Volatile antibiotic producing endophytic fungus from the Northeastern Himalayas

Original Article


Genus Muscodor came into existence with the discovery of Muscodor albus, a sterile endophytic fungus that produces a medley of volatile organic moieties possessing strong antimicrobial activity. The current paper reports Muscodor tigerii as a novel endophytic fungus from the stem internal tissue of Cinnamomum camphora growing in the Tiger Hill area of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. M. tigerii exhibited distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features than previously reported Muscodor species. The fungus possesses all the morphological features described till date in genus Muscodor making it remarkably unique. The strong fruity smell of the fungus is attributed to 22 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), predominantly 4-Octadecylmorpholine, 1-Tetradecanamine,N,N-dimethyl and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester. The in vitro VOC stress assay completely suppressed the growth of Alternaria alternata and Cercospora beticola while growth of other fungal species was inhibited in a range of 10 %-70 %. The growth of Candida albicans in the presence of VOC was reduced by 50 %-65 % while in bacteria 50 %-80 % reduction in growth was observed. Thus, M. tigerii stands as a potential candidate to be further developed into a biocontrol agent.


Anamorphic fungus Tiger hills Cinnamomum camphora ITS-rDNA 



The authors thank Department of Biotechnology (National Biodiversity Development Board) for financial assistance through project no. BT/PR/10083/NDB/52/95/2007. We also acknowledge Dr. Gary Strobel, MSU-Bozeman, USA for providing M. albus CZ620 type strain and constructive discussions. We extend our gratitude to Dr. AvneetPal Singh, Assistant Professor, Punjab University, Patiala, Punjab for his advice in taxonomic identification. We also gratefully acknowledge the help of Dr. Naresh M. Meshram and Ms. Salam Rita Devi, Division of Entomology, IARI, PUSA, New Delhi for SEM analysis and Shri Ajay Kumar from ARIF, JNU, New Delhi for GC/MS analysis.


  1. Chatterjee S, Saikia A, Dutta P, Ghosh D, Pangging G, Goswami AK (2006) Biodiversity Significance Of North East India.wwf-India 172 B Lodi Estate New Delhi 110003Google Scholar
  2. Chelliah DA (2008) Biological Activity Prediction Of An Ethno Medicinal Plant Cinnamomum Camphora Through Bio-Informatics. Ethnobotanical Leafl 12:181–190Google Scholar
  3. Choi JM, Lee EO, Lee HJ, Kim KH, Ahn KS, Shim BS, N-Ii K, Song MC, Baek NM, Kim SH (2010) Identification Of Campesterol From Chrysanthemum coronarium L. And Its Antiangiogenic Activities. Phytother Res 21(10):954–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Daisy BH, Strobel GA, Castillo U, Ezra D, Sears J, Weaver DK, Runyon JB (2002) Naphthalene, an insect repellent, is produced by Muscodor vitigenus, a novel endophytic fungus. Microbiology 148:3737–3741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ezra D, Hess WM, Strobel GA (2004) New Endophytic Isolates Of Muscodor albus, A Volatile Antibiotic-Producing Fungus. Microbiology 12:4023–4031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ezra D, Skovorodnikova J, Kroitor-Keren T, Denisov Y, Liarzi O (2010) Development Of Methods For Detection And Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Of The Sterile, Endophytic Fungus Muscodor albus. Biocontrol Sci Tech 20(1):83–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fu YX, Li WH (1993) Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations. Genetics 133:693–709PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ghosh T, Maity TP, Singh J (2010) Evaluation Of Antitumor Activity Of Stigmasterol, A Constituent Isolated from Bacopa monnieri Linn Aerial Parts Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma In Mice. Orient Pharm Exp Med 11:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guo LD, Hyde KD, Liew ECY (1998) A Method To Promote Sporulation In Palm Endophytic Fungi. Fungal Divers 1:109–113Google Scholar
  10. Kharwar RN, Maurya AL, Verma VC, Kumar A, Gond SK, Mishra A (2012) Diversity And Antimicrobial Activity Of Endophytic Fungal Community Isolated From Medicinal Plant Cinnamomum camphora. Natl Acad Sci India Sect B Biol Sci 82(4):557–565Google Scholar
  11. Kudalkar P, Strobel G, Riyaz Ul Hasan S, Geary G, Sears J (2012) Muscodor sutura, A Novel Endophytic Fungus With Volatile Antibiotic Activities. Mycoscience 53:319–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kusari S, Hertweck C, Spiteller M (2012) Chemical Ecology of Endophytic Fungi: Origins Of Secondary Metabolites. Chem Biol 19:792–798CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Librado P, Rozas J (2009) Dnasp V5: A Software For Comprehensive Analysis Of Dna Polymorphism Data. Bioinformatics 25:1451–1452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Mcneely JA, Miller KR, Reid W, Mittermeier R, Werner T (1990) Conserving The World’s Biological Diversity. Iucn, Wri, World Bank, Wwf Us, Ci, UsaGoogle Scholar
  15. Mercier J, Santamaria JIJ, Guerra PT (2007) Development Of The Volatile Producing Fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel, And Hess As A Novel Antimicrobial Bio-Fumigant. Rev Fitopatol 25(2):173–179Google Scholar
  16. Mitchell A, Strobel G, Hess W, Vargas P, Ezra D (2008) Muscodor Crispans, A Novel Endophyte From Ananas ananassoides In The Bolivian Amazon. Fungal Divers 31:37–43Google Scholar
  17. Mitchell AM, Strobel GA, Moore E, Robinson R, Sears J (2010) Volatile Antimicrobials From Muscodor crispans, A Novel Endophytic Fungus. Microbiology 156:270–277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Nei N, Kumar S (2000) Molecular Evolution And Phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The Neighbor-Joining Method: A New Method For Reconstructing Phylogenetic Trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Shipunov A, Newcombe G, Raghavendra AKH, Anderson CL (2008) Hidden Diversity Of Endophytic Fungi In An Invasive Plant. Am J Bot 95(9):1096–1108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Singh P, Shrivastava B, Kumar A, Dubey NK (2008) Fungal Contamination Of Raw Materials Of Some Herbal Drugs And Recommendation Of Cinnamomum camphora Oil As Herbal Fungitoxicant. Microb Ecol 56:555–560Google Scholar
  22. Stone JK, Bacon CW, White JF (2000) An Overview Of Endophytic Microbes: Endophytism Defined. In: Bacon C, White J (eds) Microbial Endophytes. Dekker, New York, pp 3–30Google Scholar
  23. Strobel G (2006) Muscodor albus And Its Biological Promise. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 33:514–522CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Strobel G, Daisy B (2003) Bioprospecting For Microbial Endophytes And Their Natural Products. Microbiol Mol Biol R 4:491–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Strobel GA, Dirske E, Sears J, Markworth C (2001) Volatile Antimicrobials From Muscodor albus, A Novel Endophytic Fungus. Microbiology 147:2943–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Strobel GA, Katreena K, Hess WM, Sears J, Ezra D, Vargas PN (2007) Muscodor albus E-6, An Endophyte Of Guazuma ulmifolia Making Volatile Antibiotics: Isolation, Characterization And Experimental Establishment In Host Plant. Microbiology 153:2613–2620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Suwannarach N, Bussaban B, Hyde KD, Saisamorn L (2010) Muscodor cinnamomi, a new endophytic species from Cinnamomum bejolghota. Mycotaxon 114:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Suwannarach N, Kumla J, Bussaban B, Hyde KD, Matsui K, Lumyong S (2013) Molecular And Morphological Evidence Support Four New Species In The Genus Muscodor From Northern Thailand. Ann Microbiol. doi: 10.1007/S13213-012-0593-6 Google Scholar
  29. Tajima F (1989) Statistical Method For Testing The Neutral Mutation Hypothesis By Dna Polymorphism. Genetics 123:585–59PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) Mega5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, And Maximum Parsimony Methods. Mol Biol Evol 28(10):2731–2739CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Togashi N, Hamashima H, Shiraishi A, Inoue Y, Takano A (2010) Antibacterial Activities Against Staphylococcus aureus of Terpene Alcohols With Aliphatic Carbon Chains. J Essent Oil Res 22:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Verma VC, Kharwar RN, Gange AC (2010) Biosynthesis Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles By The Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus clavatus. Nanomedicine 5:33–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang C, Wang G, Mao LJ, Komon-Zelazowska M, Yuan ZL, Lin FC, Druzhinina IS, Kubicek CP (2010) Muscodor fengyangensis sp. Nov. From Southeast China: Morphology, Physiology and Production Of Volatile Compounds. Fungal Biol 114:797–808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhao J, Shan T, Mou T, Zhou L (2011) Plant-Derived Bioactive Compounds Produced By Endophytic Fungi. Mini Rev Med Chem 11(2):159–168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and the University of Milan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations