Annals of Microbiology

, Volume 64, Issue 3, pp 1371–1384 | Cite as

Biosorption of copper, lead and nickel on immobilized Bacillus coagulans using experimental design methodologies

  • Dai-yin Lei
  • Zhuan Liu
  • Yu-hong Peng
  • Shou-bin Liao
  • Heng XuEmail author
Original Article


Biosorption of copper, lead and nickel onto immobilized Bacillus coagulans (IBC) from aqueous solution in single- and multi-metal systems was investigated. The results of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry demonstrated the importance of surface morphology and identified the active groups involved in adsorption. In batch studies, the most significant factors were screened by Minimum Run Res V Design. The Simplex Lattice Mixture Design was then successfully applied to explore the maximum adsorption capacity of the three metals (75.3 mg/g for copper, 118.3 mg/g for lead and 68.4 mg/g for nickel) and the preferential adsorption of IBC followed the order: Pb (II) > Cu (II) > Ni (II). Furthermore, adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms of single-, binary-, and ternary-metal systems were studied and the experimental data was found to fit well to the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics.


Bacillus coagulans Heavy metal Simplex lattice design Selective adsorption 



This study was supported financially by the Science and Technology Supportive Project of Sichuan Province, China (NO.2013SZ0062), Science and Technology Supportive Project of Chengdu (NO.12DXYB087JH-005). The authors wish to thank Professor Guanglei Cheng and Dong Yu from Sichuan University for their technical assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and the University of Milan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dai-yin Lei
    • 1
  • Zhuan Liu
    • 1
  • Yu-hong Peng
    • 2
  • Shou-bin Liao
    • 3
  • Heng Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment (Ministry of Education), College of Life ScienceSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Yaan Vacational CollegeYaanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Shiling Subdistrict Office of Longquanyi DistrictChengduChina

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