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Annals of Microbiology

, Volume 64, Issue 1, pp 209–218 | Cite as

Isolation and identification of antimicrobial secondary metabolites from Bacillus cereus associated with a rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode

  • Sasidharan Nishanth Kumar
  • Bala Nambisan
  • Andikkannu Sundaresan
  • Chellapan Mohandas
  • Ruby John Anto
Original Article

Abstract

The cell-free culture filtrate of Bacillus cereus associated with an entomopathogenic nematode, Rhabditis (Oscheius) sp., exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The ethyl acetate extract of the bacterial culture filtrate was purified by silica gel column chromatography to obtain six bioactive compounds. The structure and absolute stereochemistry of these compounds were determined based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (LCMS, FABMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H −1H COSY, 1H −13C HMBC) and Marfey’s method. The compounds were identified as cyclo(D-Pro-D-Leu), cyclo(L-Pro-D-Met), cyclo (L-Pro-D-Phe), cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), 3,5-dihydroxy-4-ethyl-trans-stilbene, and 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene, respectively. Compounds recorded antibacterial activity against all four tested bacteria strains of Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene recorded activity only against Gram-positive bacteria while cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val) recorded no antibacterial activity. Best antibacterial activity was recorded by 3,5-dihydroxy-4-ethyl-trans-stilbene (4 μg/ml) against Escherichia coli. The six compounds recorded significant antifungal activities against five fungal strains tested (Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Penicillium expansum) and they were more effective than bavistin, the standard fungicide. The activity of cyclo(D-Pro-D-Leu), cyclo(L-Pro-D-Met), 3,5-dihydroxy-4-ethyl-trans-stilbene, and 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene against Candida albicans was better than amphotericin B. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of antifungal activity of the bioactive compounds against the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Penicillium expansum. We conclude that the Bacillus cereus strain associated with entomopathogenic nematode is a promising source of natural bioactive secondary metabolites which may receive great benefit as potential sources of new drugs in the agricultural and pharmacological industry.

Keywords

Bacillus cereus Secondary metabolite Purification Antimicrobial 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Indian Council Medical Research (ICMR), Government of India for funding. We thank the Director, CTCRI, for providing facilities for the work.

Supplementary material

13213_2013_653_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 16 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and the University of Milan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sasidharan Nishanth Kumar
    • 1
  • Bala Nambisan
    • 1
  • Andikkannu Sundaresan
    • 2
  • Chellapan Mohandas
    • 1
  • Ruby John Anto
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Crop Protection, Division of Crop UtilisationCentral Tuber Crops Research InstituteThiruvananthapuramIndia
  2. 2.Division of Agroprocessing and Natural ProductsNIISTTrivandrumIndia
  3. 3.Integrated Cancer Research Program, Division of Cancer ResearchRajiv Gandhi Centre for BiotechnologyThiruvananthapuramIndia

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