Annals of Microbiology

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 1173–1179 | Cite as

Production of microbial biomass protein from mixed substrates by sequential culture fermentation of Candida utilis and Brevibacterium lactofermentum

  • Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka
  • Sibtain AhmedEmail author
  • Abu Saeed Hashmi
  • Muhammad Athar
Original Article


The aim of the current study was to apply a mixed culture of Candida utilis and Brevibacterium lactofermentum instead of using a mono-culture of B. lactofermentum or yeast to produce higher amount of amino acids, crude protein and true protein by using the maximum amount of substrate mixture, which B. lactofermentum alone cannot utilize. This mixed culture offered a combination that yielded high crude protein content and converted the substrate mixture efficiently into microbial biomass protein. Best results were obtained with sequential fermentation carried out with B. lactofermentum added after 3 days to C. utilis culture grown on beet pulp hydrolysate supplemented with molasses and glucose. Mixed culture of C. utilis and B. lactofermentum maintained the properties of each individual fermentation, with high production of microbial biomass protein in optimized medium. Crude protein increased from 11.3% to 54.5% and dry cell mass to 48 g/L with mixed culture. The amino acid profile of the final microbial biomass protein obtained by mixed culture of C. utilis and B. lactofermentum in a 75-L fermentor remained unchanged, and was enriched with all essential and non-essential amino acids. Mixed culture in this study thus exhibits a synergistic effect with possible industrial application.


Beet pulp Candida utilis Brevibacterium lactofermentum Single cell protein 



This research was funded by the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan and the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, P.O. Box 577 Faisalabad, Pakistan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag and the University of Milan 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sibtain Ahmed
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Abu Saeed Hashmi
    • 5
  • Muhammad Athar
    • 6
  1. 1.National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic EngineeringFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Government College (GC) UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.School of MedicineUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  5. 5.Institute of Biochemistry and BiotechnologyUniversity of Veterinary and Animal SciencesLahorePakistan
  6. 6.Department of Animal NutritionUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

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