Annals of Microbiology

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 1021–1029 | Cite as

Antifungal activity of some plant extracts against sugar beet damping-off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

  • Aly Soliman Derbalah
  • Yaser Hassan Dewir
  • Abd El-Naser Badawy El-Sayed
Original Article


In an attempt to search for natural pesticides, crude extracts of seven plant species (Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Cassia fistula, Cassia senna, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus and Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba) were evaluated against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causative fungus of damping-off, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify possible biologically active components (tetradecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, phytol, linalool, 1,8 cineole and 9, 12, 15 octadecanoic acid) from the plant extracts most effective against S. rolfsii. Laboratory experiments indicated that leaf extracts of T. populnea var. acutiloba and Chrysanthemum frutescens were most effective against S. rolfsii. Greenhouse experiments confirmed that T. populnea var. acutiloba and Chrysanthemum frutescens extracts were most effective against the damping-off pathogen, either by coating or soaking of sugar beet seeds. None of the extracts tested produced phytotoxic effects on sugar beet leaves, even at the highest concentration applied. The most effective plant extracts showed low toxicity in rats relative to controls with respect to histological tests. The extracts assayed represent a potentially safe control method for damping-off disease in sugar beet.


Analysis Extract Pathogen Sugar beet 


  1. Ahmadi F, Sadeghi S, Modarresi M, Abiri R, Mikaeli A (2010) Chemical composition, in vitro anti-microbial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Hymenocrater longiflorus Benth of Iran. Food Chem Toxicol 48:1137–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aycock R (1966) Stem rot and other diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. N C Agric Exp Stn Tech Bull 174:202Google Scholar
  3. Bancroft JD, Stevens A (1996) Theory and practice of histopathological techniques, 4th edn. Churchill Livingstone, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheraif I, Ben Jannet H, Hammami M, Khouja ML, Mighri Z (2007) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Cupressus arizonica Greene. Biochem Syst Ecol 35:813–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chutia M, Bhuyan PD, Pathak MG, Sarma TCP, Boruah P (2009) Antifungal activity and chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against phytopathogens from North East India. LWT Food Sci Technol 42:777–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cramer RA, Byrne PF, Brick MA, Panella L, Wickliffe E, Shchwartz HF (2003) Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from common bean and sugar beet using pathogenecity assays and random amplified polymeric DNA markers. J Phytopathol 151:352–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cornelius CE, Bishop J, Switzer J, Rhode EA (1959) Serum and tissue transaminase activities in domestic animals. Cornell Vet 49:116–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Duarte-Almeida JM, Negri G, Salatino A (2004) Volatile oils in Leaves of Bauhina (Fabaceae Coesaplinioideae). Biochem Syst Ecol 32:747–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El-Abyad MS, Abu-taleb AM, Abdel-Mawgoud T (1997) Response of host cultivar to cell wall-degrading enzymes of the sugarbeet pathogens Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. under salinity stress. Microbiol Res 152:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elad Y (1995) Mycoparasitism. In: Kohmoto K, Singh US, Singh RP (eds) Pathogenesis and host specificity in plant diseases: histopathological, biochemical, genetic and molecular bases, vol II, eukaryotes. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 285–307Google Scholar
  11. El-Shoraky FSA (1998) Using extracts and oils of some plant diseases. Tanta University, Egypt, DissertationGoogle Scholar
  12. Eltoony AME, Awad NGH, Tadrous MFE, Ahmed FS (2003) Chemical and biological control of tomato damping-off disease under nursery conditions with special references to the antagonism between the causal pathogens. Egyptian J Appl Sci 18:47–68Google Scholar
  13. El-shahawy EA (2002) Biocidal effect of some compounds on some soil borne fungi. Tanta University, Egypt, DissertationGoogle Scholar
  14. Eweis M, Elkholy SS, Elsabee MZ (2006) Antifungal efficacy of chitosan and its thiourea derivatives upon the growth of some sugar-beet pathogens. Int J Biol Macromol 38:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gouda MI (2001) Studies on some casuals of sugar beets root rot. Tanta Universty, Egypt, DissertationGoogle Scholar
  16. Grainger J (1949) Crop and diseases. Plant pathology Department, West of Scotland Agriculture, College Research Bull 9:51Google Scholar
  17. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV (2003) Antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. J Appl Microbiol 95:853–860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kelen M, Tepe B (2008) Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of three Salvia species from Turkish flora. Bioresour Technol 99:4096–4104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Latha P, Anand T, Ragupathi N, Prakasam V, Samiyappan R (2009) Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and induction of systemic resistance in tomato plants by mixtures of PGPR strains and Zimmu leaf extract against Alternaria solani. Biol Control 50:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu W-W, Mu W, Zhu B-Y, Du Y-C, Liu F (2008) Antagonistic activities of volatiles from four strains of Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp. against soil-borne plant pathogens. Agric Sci China 7:1104–1114Google Scholar
  21. Mdee LK, Masoko P, Eloff JN (2009) The activity of extracts of seven common invasive plant species on fungal phytopathogens. South Afr J Bot 75:375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mengs U, Mitchell J, McPherson S, Gregson R, Tigner J (2004) A 13-week oral toxicity study of senna in the rat with an 8-week recovery period. Arch Toxicol 78:269–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mitchell JM, Mengs U, McPherson S, Zijlstra J, Dettmar P, Gregson R, Tigner JC (2006) An oral carcinogenicity and toxicity study of senna (Tinnevelly senna fruits) in the rat. Arch Toxicol 80:34–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Okemo OP, Baisa HP, Jorge M, Vivancoa JM (2003) In vitro activities of Maesa lanceolata extracts against fungal plant pathogens. Fitoterapia 74:312–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Panda S, Kar A (1999) Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea in the regulation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in female mice. J Ethnopharmacol 67:233–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Park SH, Ko SK, Chung SH (2005) Euonymus alatus prevents the hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet in ICR mice. J Ethnopharmacol 102:326–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Punja ZK (1985) The biology, ecology, and control of Sclerotium rolfsii. Annu Rev Phytopathol 23:97–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ragas CY, Hofilena JG, Rideout JA (2002) New furanoid diterpenes from Caesalpinia pulcherrima. J Nat Prod 65:1107–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Romestaing C, Piquet M, Bedu E, Rouleau V, Dautresme M, Hourmand-Ollivier I, Filippi C, Duchamp C, Sibille B (2007) Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats. Nutr Metab 4:4. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-4-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Soković MD, Vukojević J, Marin PD, Brkić DD, Vajs V, Griensven LLD (2009) Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities. Molecules 14:238–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tzakou O, Pitarokili D, Chinou IB, Harvala C (2001) Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Salvia ringens. Planta Med 67:81–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vincent JH (1947) Distortion of fungal hyphae in presence of certain inhibitors. Nature 159:850–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yossry AA, Abedalal SM, El-Imery SM (1998) Fungi toxic properties of some plant extracts against the growth of soil borne disease fungi. Ann Agric Sci Moshtohor 3:891–909Google Scholar
  34. Wagh P, Rai M, Deshmukh SK, Durate MCT (2007) Bioactivity of oils of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Pongamia pinna. Afr J Biotechnol 6:1592–1596Google Scholar
  35. Walters D, Raynor L, Mitchell A, Walker R, Wallker K (2004) Antifungal activity of four fatty acids against plant pathogenic fungi. Mycopathology 157:87–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag and the University of Milan 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aly Soliman Derbalah
    • 1
  • Yaser Hassan Dewir
    • 2
  • Abd El-Naser Badawy El-Sayed
    • 3
  1. 1.Pesticides Department, Faculty of AgricultureKafr El-Sheikh UniversityKafr El-SheikhEgypt
  2. 2.Horticulture Department, Faculty of AgricultureKafrelsheikh UniversityKafr El-SheikhEgypt
  3. 3.Plant Pathology Research InstituteAgriculture Research CenterGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations