A two-stage culture (with controlled sucrose concentrations and temperatures) of Sphingomonas paucimobilis for gellan gum production has been previously investigated. Herein, the mechanism of a two-stage culture favoring gellan gum overproduction was revealed by analysing the cell-membrane permeability and the proteomics for gellan gum biosynthesis. The two-stage culture, resulted in 79.8% increased content of unsaturated fatty acids, and 3.95% increased ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in the cell membrane. Moreover, cell membrane permeability increased and thus further enhanced gellan gum biosynthesis. Proteomic analysis results indicated that 13 identified protein spots were involved in energy generation, glycogen biosynthesis, and glycolysis. These findings revealed that two-stage culture impellel carbon flux flow toward gellan gum biosynthesis.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ahn JW, Hwangbo K, Lee SY, Choi HG, Park YI, Liu JR, Jeong WJ (2012) A new arcticchlorellaspecies for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technol 125:340–343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.026
Alizadeh-Sani M, Ehsani A, Moghaddas Kia E et al (2019) Microbial gums: introducing a novel functional component of edible coatings and packaging Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 103:6853. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-09966-x
Bradford M (1976) A rapid sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976(72):248–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
Dolan LC, Matulka RA, Lebeau AL, Boulet JM (2016) Two new nontoxic, non-pathogenic strains of sphingomonas elodea for gellan gum production. Regul Toxicol Pharm 78:37–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.04.002
Fialho AM, Moreira LM, Granja AT, Popescu AO, Sá-Correia I (2008) Occurrence, production, and applications of gellan: current state and perspectives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79:889–900. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1496-0
Jin H, Lee NK, Shin MK, Kim SK, Kaplan DL, Lee JW (2003) Production of gellan gum by Sphingomonas paucimobilis nk2000 with soybean pomace. Bioche Eng J 16:357–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-703X(03)00076-7
Katz AK, Li X, Carrell HL, Hanson BL, Langan P, Coates L, Schoenborn BP, Glusker JP, Bunick GJ (2006) Locating active-site hydrogen atoms in D-xylose isomerase: time-of-flight neutron diffraction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:8342–8347. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0602598103
Morris ER, Nishinari K, Rinaudo M (2012) Gelation of gellan-a review. Food Hydrocolloid 28:373–411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.01.004
Mykytczuk NCS, Trevors JT, Leduc LG, Ferroni GD (2007) Fluorescence polarization in studies of bacterial cytoplasmic membrane fluidity under environmental stress. Prog Biophys Mol Bio 95:60–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2007.05.001
Pan S, Yao D, Chen J, Wu S (2013) Influence of controlled pH on the activity of UDPG-pyrophosphorylase in Aureobasidium pullulans. Carbohydr Polym 92:629–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.08.099
Prajapati VD, Jani GK, Zala BS, Khutliwala TA (2013) An insight into the emerging exopolysaccharide gellan gum as a novel polymer. Carbohydr Polym 93:670–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.01.030
Raghunandan K, Kumar A, Kumar S et al (2018) 3 Biotech 8:71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1096-3
Sá-Correia I, Fialho AM, Videira P, Moreira LM, Marques AR (2002) Gellan gum biosynthesis in Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461: genes, enzymes and exopolysaccharide production engineering. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 29:170–176. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jim.7000266
Santhiagu A, Rathindra MB (2008) Optimization of gellan gumproduction by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 with nonionic surfactants using central composite design. J Biosci Bioeng 105:204–210. https://doi.org/10.1263/jbb.105.204
Sheng L, Zhu G, Tong Q (2013) Mechanism study of Tween 80 enhancing the pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans. Carbohydr Polym 97:121–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.04.058
Sheng L, Zhu G, Tong Q (2014) Comparative proteomic analysis of Aureobasidium pullulans in the presence of high and low levels of nitrogen source. J Agric Food Chem 62:10529–10534.https://doi.org/10.1021/jf503390f
Shimiziu S, Kawashima H, Shinmen Y, Akimoto K, Yamada H (1988) J Am Oil Chem Soc 65:1455–1459. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02898307
Tarze A, Deniaud A, Le Bras M, Maillier E, Molle D, Larochette N, Zamzami N, Jan G, Kroemer G, Brenner C (2007) GAPDH, a novel regulator of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Oncogene 26:2606–2620. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1210074
Vartak NB, Lin CC, Cleary JM, Fagan MJ Jr, SM, (1995) Glucose metabolism in 'sphingomonas elodea': pathway engineering via construction of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase insertion mutant. Microbiology 141:2339–2350. https://doi.org/10.1099/13500872-141-9-2339
West T (2002) Isolation of a mutant strain of Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 31461 exhibiting elevated polysaccharide production. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 29:185. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jim.7000278
Yehuda S, Rabinovitz S, Carasso RL, Mostofsky DI (2002) The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in restoring the aging neuronal membrane. Neurobiol Aging 23:843–853. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-4580(02)00074-X
Zhang E, Brewer JM, Minor W, Carreira LA, Lebioda L (1997) Mechanism of enolase: the crystal structure of asymmetric dimer enolase-2-phospho-D-glycerate/enolase-phosphoenolpyruvate at 2.0 A resolution. Biochemistry 36:12526–12534. https://doi.org/10.1021/bi9712450
Zhang J, Dong YC, Fan LL, Jiao ZH, Chen QH (2015) Optimization of culture medium compositions for gellan gum production by a halobacterium sphingomonas paucimobilis. Carbohydr Polym 115:694–700. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.09.029
Zhu G, Sheng L, Tong Q (2013) A new strategy to enhance gellan production by two-stage culture in Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Carbohydr Polym 98:829–834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.06.060
Zhu G, Guo N, Yong Y et al (2019) Effect of 2-deoxy-d-glucose on gellan gum biosynthesis by Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 42:897–900. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-019-02078-w
Zia KM, Tabasum S, Khan MF, Akram N, Akhter N, Noreen A, Zubera M (2018) Recent trends on gellan gum blends with natural and synthetic polymers: a review. Int J Biol Macromol 109:1068–1087. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.11.099
We are grateful for financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31401657).
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhu, G., Cheng, X., Fu, Z. et al. The mechanism of improved gellan gum production by two-stage culture of Sphingomonas paucimobilis. 3 Biotech 10, 70 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-2047-3
- Two-stage culture
- Gellan gum
- Sphingomonas paucimobilis