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Comparative study of DAM, Dof, and WRKY gene families in fourteen species and their expression in Vitis vinifera

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Bud dormancy is one of the most important defensive mechanisms through which plants resist cold stress during harsh winter weather. DAM, Dof, and WRKY have been reported to be involved in many biological processes, including bud dormancy. In the present study, grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and other thirteen plants (six woody plants and seven herbaceous plants) were analyzed for the quantity, sequence structure, and evolution patterns of their DAM, Dof, and WRKY gene family members. Moreover, the expression of VvDAM, VvDof, and VvWRKY genes was also investigated. Thus, 51 DAM, 1,205 WRKY, and 489 Dof genes were isolated from selected genomes, while 5 DAM, 114 WRKY, and 50 Dof duplicate gene pairs were identified in 10 genomes. Moreover, WGD and segmental duplication events were associated with the majority of the expansions of Dof and WRKY gene families. The VvDAM, VvDof, and VvWRKY genes significantly differentially expressed throughout bud dormancy outnumbered those significantly differentially expressed throughout fruit development or under abiotic stresses. Interestingly, multiple stress responsive genes were identified, such as VvDAM (VIT_00s0313g00070), two VvDof genes (VIT_18s0001g11310 and VIT_02s0025g02250), and two VvWRKY genes (VIT_07s0031g01710 and VIT_11s0052g00450). These data provide candidate genes for molecular biology research investigating bud dormancy and responses to abiotic stresses (namely salt, drought, copper, and waterlogging).

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Availability of data and material

Gene expression was analyzed using NCBI online datasets (GSE77218, SRP070475, SRP074162, and SRP159132) or Leng et al.’s supplemental datasets.



Dormancy associated MADS-box


DNA-binding one zinc finger


Coding sequence


Million years ago


Whole genome duplication


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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772283), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (KYZ201837).

Author information

Conceived and designed the experiments: LFSG and JGF. Analyzed the data: LFSG, XF, KKZ, and MXC. RT-qPCR: MXC, ZQX, and TZ. Wrote the paper: LFSG, XF, and JGF. Revised the paper: LFSG, JGF, YFP, and MXC.

Correspondence to Lingfei Shangguan.

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Shangguan, L., Chen, M., Fang, X. et al. Comparative study of DAM, Dof, and WRKY gene families in fourteen species and their expression in Vitis vinifera. 3 Biotech 10, 72 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-2039-3

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  • Vitis vinifera
  • Bud dormancy
  • DAM
  • Dof
  • WRKY
  • 14 species