3 Biotech

, 10:1 | Cite as

Effect of cellulolytic enzyme binding on lignin isolated from alkali and acid pretreated switchgrass on enzymatic hydrolysis

  • Woochul Jung
  • Ratna Sharma-ShivappaEmail author
  • Sunkyu Park
  • Praveen KolarEmail author
Original Article


In this research, the binding of cellulolytic enzymes in Cellic® CTec2 on six lignin isolates obtained from alkali (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% NaOH at 121 °C for 30 min) and acid (1, 2, and 3% H2SO4 at 121 °C for 60 min) pretreated switchgrass was investigated. Briefly, the hydrolysis of cellobiose and Avicel with and without (control) lignin isolates was performed via CTec2 (5 and 10 FPU g−1 carbohydrate) to determine whether the presence of lignin and binding of cellulolytic enzymes to the isolated lignin can affect the sugar production using three carbohydrate-lignin loadings, namely, 0.5:0.25, 0.5:0.5, and 0.5:1.0% (wv−1). Based on SDS-PAGE results, β-glucosidase (BG) was significantly bound to all lignin isolates. Some enzymes in CTec2 presumed to be cellobiohydrolases, endo-1,4-β-glucanases, and xylanase, were also observed to partially bind to the lignin isolates. Up to 0.97 g glucose g−1 cellobiose was produced via hydrolysis (72 h and pH 4.8) with CTec2 (5 and 10 FPU g−1 carbohydrate). Similarly, up to 0.23 and 0.46 g glucose g−1 Avicel were produced via hydrolysis (72 h and pH 4.8) with 5 and 10 FPU g−1 carbohydrate, respectively. Results indicated that the addition of lignin isolates during cellobiose and Avicel hydrolysis did not significantly (p > 0.05) reduce glucose production regardless of type and amount of lignin isolate. Hence, even though BG was significantly bound to lignin isolates, it could maintain its functionality as a biological catalyst in this study.


Switchgrass Lignin Pretreatment Enzyme binding Cellulases β-Glucosidase 



The authors thank Drs. Rongda Qu (NC State University Crop Science) and Dhanalekshmi Savithri (NC State University Department of Forest Biomaterials) for help with sample analyses.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Campus Box 7625North Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Department of Forest Biomaterials, Campus Box 8001North Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

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