Anticancer activity of plant leaves extract collected from a tribal region of India
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The goal of this research was to explore the preliminary anticancer properties of five plants namely Calotropis procera, Moringa oleifera, Millettia pinnata, Basela alba and Euphorbia neriifolia available in Jharkhand which is used for the medicinal purpose by local tribes. In the present study, plant leaves from five species were collected, dried and extracted with solvents of increasing polarity, followed by assessment of their cytotoxicity in A549 non-small-cell lung cancer cells. In the antimicrobial assay, the methanol extract of the M. pinnata leaves exhibited comparatively higher zone of inhibition of 0.7 ± 0.20 cm against a Salmonella typhi culture than the other extracts. M. pinnata leaves extract also displayed the maximum percentage inhibition in the DPPH, 83.97 ± 0.01 FRAP, 193.14 ± 3.01 mM assays. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of the chloroform (37.45 ± 1.04) and ethyl acetate extracts (34.20 ± 0.81) of M. pinnata against A549 cells was found relatively higher with respect to another extract. In contrast, a study with the L132 normal epithelial lung cell line revealed less toxicity from the chloroform extract (0.33 ± 0.19) compared to the ethyl acetate extract (6.65 ± 0.59). Based on these findings, phytochemical investigation on chloroform and ethyl acetate extract of M. pinnata was performed using UPLC-ESI–MS/MS analysis revealing the presence of β-sitosterol, lanceolatin B, karanjin, and stigmasterol. Congruently, a complete phytochemical and cytotoxic investigation of the M. pinnata extract constituents might infer the potency of this extract/s as anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.
KeywordsAnticancer Antioxidant assay Apoptosis Mass spectroscopy
Acridine orange/ethidium bromide
4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydro chloride
Ferric reducing ability of plasma
2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)
Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium
Foetal bovine serum
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Zone of inhibition
50% Inhibitory concentration
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
Centre of Excellence (COE) TEQIP-II Grant no- NPIU/TEQIP II/FLN/31/158 is gratefully acknowledged for providing financial assistance to GK in the form of scholarship. Financial assistance provided by BIT Mesra, Ranchi, India to DMP through Seed Money Scheme-2015 (Ref.GO/SMS/DSR-007/2015-2016 dated 13-11-2015) is gratefully acknowledged. Central Instrumentation Facility BIT, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India is acknowledged for providing analysis facility of the present study. Prof Shishir Sinha, Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Roorkee is gratefully acknowledged for his support and suggestions. Authors wish to express a special gratitude to Dr. Stefano Dall’Acqua, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Italy for proofreading of manuscript and valuable suggestions in removing the technical and grammatical errors.
All authors have seen and approved the manuscript and its contents, and that they are aware of the responsibilities connected to authorship. All the work was majorly performed by Mr. Gourav Kumar, under the supervision of Dr. D. M. Pandey, Associate Professor Department of Bio-Engineering, BIT Mesra, and with joint efforts of Ms. Rashmi Gupta, Department of Bio-Engineering, BIT Mesra. All cytotoxicity assays were performed at Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India under the guidance of Dr. Shruti Sharan and Dr. Partha Roy, Professor Department of Biotechnology.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.
We confirm that this research study does not include either vertebrates or higher invertebrates.
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