3 Biotech

, 9:314 | Cite as

Biosynthesis of butyl esters from crude oil of palm fruit and kernel using halophilic lipase secretion by Marinobacter litoralis SW-45

  • Haliru Musa
  • Farizul Hafiz KasimEmail author
  • Ahmad Anas Nagoor Gunny
  • Subash C. B. Gopinath
  • Mohd. Azmier Ahmad
Original Article


Initially, a new moderate halophilic strain was locally isolated from seawater. The partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis positioned the organism in Marinobacter genus and was named ‘Marinobacter litoralis SW-45’. This study further demonstrates successful utilization of the halophilic M. litoralis SW-45 lipase (MLL) for butyl ester synthesis from crude palm fruit oil (CPO) and kernel oil (CPKO) in heptane and solvent-free system, respectively, using hydroesterification. Hydrolysis and esterification of enzymatic [Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL)] hydrolysis of CPO and CPKO to free fatty acids (FFA) followed by MLL-catalytic esterification of the concentrated FFAs with butanol (acyl acceptor) to synthesize butyl esters were performed. A one-factor-at-a-time technique (OFAT) was used to study the influence of physicochemical factors on the esterification reaction. Under optimal esterification conditions of 40 and 45 °C, 150 and 230 rpm, 50% (v/v) biocatalyst concentration, 1:1 and 5:1 butanol:FFA, 9% and 15% (w/v) NaCl, 60 and 15 min reaction time for CPO- and CPKO-derived FFA esterification system, maximum ester conversion of 62.2% and 69.1%, respectively, was attained. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis confirmed the products formed as butyl esters. These results showed halophilic lipase has promising potential to be used for biosynthesis of butyl esters in oleochemical industry.


Marinobacter litoralis Lipase Hydroesterification Butyl esters Free fatty acids Oleochemical 



This research was supported by the Research Acculturation Collaborative Effort (RACE) Grant Scheme (Grant no. 9017-00007), Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), Malaysia.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The current research work did not involve either of human or animal studies.

Supplementary material

13205_2019_1845_MOESM1_ESM.docx (131 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 130 kb)


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haliru Musa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Farizul Hafiz Kasim
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ahmad Anas Nagoor Gunny
    • 2
    • 3
  • Subash C. B. Gopinath
    • 1
  • Mohd. Azmier Ahmad
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Bioprocess EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisArauMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre of Excellence for Biomass Utilization, School of Bioprocess EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisArauMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia PerlisPadang BesarMalaysia
  4. 4.School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering CampusUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

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