3 Biotech

, 9:306 | Cite as

Bioactive molecules of probiotic bacteria and their mechanism of action: a review

  • M. Indira
  • T. C. VenkateswaruluEmail author
  • K. Abraham Peele
  • Md. Nazneen Bobby
  • S. KrupanidhiEmail author
Review Article


The bacteria residing in the gut environment do play a pivotal role in metabolic activities of the host. The metabolites produced by these bacteria affect the physiology and health of the host. The gut bacteria are exposed to environmental conditions where multiple factors such as lifestyle, stress, antibiotics, host genetics and infections have an influence on them. In case of pathogenesis of a disease, the gut bacterial composition is altered which leads to a diseased state. This stage is due to colonization of bacterial pathogens in the gut environment. The pathological condition can be alleviated by administering probiotic strains into the gut environment. The probiotic strains produce therapeutic molecules such as amino acids, vitamins, bacteriocins, enzymes, immunomodulatory compounds and short-chain fatty acids. This review discusses recent evidences of the impact of bioactive molecules produced by probiotic bacteria and their mechanism of action in the gut environment to maintain homeostasis and health of the host without any effect on beneficial bacteria sharing the same niche. In addition, the manufacturing challenges of probiotic products for various applications are discussed here.


Bacteriocin Probiotic Short-chain fatty acids Pathogenesis Metabolites 



Colony forming units


National Sanitary Surveillance Agency








Lactic acid bacteria


Peroxisome proliferated activated receptor- γ



The authors acknowledge the support of Vignan’s Foundation for Science Technology and Research (Deemed to be University), Vadlamudi-522213, Guntur, A.P, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of the interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bio-TechnologyVignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and ResearchVadlamudiIndia

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