3 Biotech

, 9:309 | Cite as

New biological trends on cell and callus growth and azadirachtin production in Azadirachta indica

  • Reza Farjaminezhad
  • Ghasem-ali GaroosiEmail author
Original Article


Azadirachtin is an important secondary metabolite from Azadirachta indica used as a natural biopesticide. This study is the first comprehensive report concerning the influence of plant growth regulators on callus induction, cell suspension growth, and azadirachtin accumulation and production in cell suspension cultures of A. indica. We investigated the effect of plant growth regulators including different types of auxins and cytokinins and their combinations on callus induction, cell suspension growth, and azadirachtin accumulation and production. The highest percentage of callusing (100%) obtained at different combinations of plant growth regulators on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L picloram and 2 mg/L kinetin and the highest fresh weight of callus (264.50 mg) was observed in MS medium containing 1.5 mg/L NAA and 3 mg/L kinetin. In cell suspension cultures, the maximum cell density, SCV, and PCV were 2.44 × 106 cells per mL, 97.95%, and 81.46%, respectively, obtained in the MS medium containing 1.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 3 mg/L zeatin riboside. The highest average growth rate (0.25 days) was on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/L NAA and 3 mg/L zeatin riboside. The MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L picloram and 2 mg/L kinetin produced the highest amount of fresh cell weight (493.02 g/L), dry cell weight (77.27 g/L), azadirachtin accumulation (3.69 mg/gDW), and azadirachtin production (285.64 mg/L). The results showed that all measured indices had positive correlation with together except FCW and DCW with azadirachtin accumulation.


Auxins Azadirachta indica Azadirachtin Cell suspension culture Cytokinins 



This work was extracted from a PhD thesis of the first author submitted to Department of Biotechnology at Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU), Qazvin, Iran. Authors thanks from IKIU for financial support and especially Dr. Jafar Ahmadi for technical support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13205_2019_1836_MOESM1_ESM.docx (35 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 35 kb)


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesImam Khomeini International University (IKIU)QazvinIslamic Republic of Iran

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