3 Biotech

, 9:307 | Cite as

Assessment of different temporary immersion systems in the micropropagation of anthurium (Anthurium andreanum)

  • Marco A. Ramírez-Mosqueda
  • Carlos A. Cruz-Cruz
  • Adrián Cano-Ricárdez
  • Jericó J. Bello-BelloEmail author
Original Article


Anthurium has been micropropagated mainly through conventional techniques in semisolid culture medium. However, this culture system involves constraints due to the low number of shoots produced and the high costs of the gelling agent and labor. Temporary immersion systems (TIS) are an alternative for increasing biological performance, reducing costs, and facilitating a semi-automated micropropagation process. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of different types of TIS during the in vitro propagation of anthurium. We used 2-cm-long nodal segments from in vitro plants. Explants were cultured in different TIS: temporary immersion bioreactors (TIB®), Ebb-and-Flow bioreactor, and recipient for automated temporary immersion (RITA®), with a 2-min immersion frequency at 12-h intervals. We used Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3% (w/v) of sucrose and 8.88 µM benzylaminopurine. After 60 days of culture, we evaluated various physiological variables and the percent survival in the different TIS. The largest numbers of shoots per explant were observed in TIB® and Ebb-and-Flow, with 50.83 and 43.16 shoots per explant, respectively; the lowest number of shoots per explant was observed in RITA®, with 30.66. TIB® yielded the highest content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll), stomatal index, and percentage of closed stomata relative to both Ebb-and-Flow and RITA®. The TIB® and RITA® systems showed a 99% shoot survival, while Ebb-and-Flow yielded 86% survival. In conclusion, TIS design and type affect a number of physiological processes and in vitro development, with TIB® as a feasible option for the commercial micropropagation of anthurium.


Chlorophyll Stomatal functionality Bioreactors Acclimatization 


Author contributions

MARM, and JJBB conceived and designed research. CACC, and ACR conducted experiments. MARM and JJBB analyzed and reviewed the statistical analysis. MARM and JJBB wrote the manuscript. MARM, JJBB, CACC, and ACR read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no conflicting interests.


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Colegio de Postgraduados Campus CórdobaAmatlán de los ReyesMexico
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas y AgropecuariasUniversidad VeracruzanaAmatlán de los ReyesMexico
  3. 3.Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad VeracruzanaOrizabaMexico
  4. 4.CONACYT-Colegio de Postgraduados Campus CórdobaAmatlán de los ReyesMexico

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