3 Biotech

, 9:147 | Cite as

Beetroot juice alleviates isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in rats

  • Mohammad RaishEmail author
  • Ajaz Ahmad
  • Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari
  • Khalid M. Alkharfy
  • Abdul Ahad
  • Altaf Khan
  • Naushad Ali
  • Majid A. Ganaie
  • Mohammed Abbas Ali Hamidaddin
Original Article


Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) juice (BRJ) is a good source of betalain (betacyanins and betaxanthin) pigments and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemo-preventive activities in vitro and in vivo. The current study was performed to determine the cardioprotective effect of BRJ on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense, functional impairment, and histopathology in rats with isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial injury. Myocardial ischemia was induced by ISP (85 mg/kg) s.c. injection at 24 h intervals, followed by oral administration of BRJ for 28 days at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg. ISP-induced myocardial damage was confirmed by an increase in heart weight to body weight ratio, % infarction size, serum cardiac indices (AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, LDH and CK-MB), and histological alterations in the myocardium. Pretreatment with BRJ (150 and 300 mg/kg) followed by ISP induction reduced oxidative/nitrosative stress and restored the cardiac endogenous antioxidants in rats. ISP augmented cardiac inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10), myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB DNA binding and protein expression of NF-κB (p65), and the hyperlipidemia level was significantly reduced by the BRJ pretreatment. Furthermore, the BRJ pretreatment significantly reduced caspase-3, Bax, and MMP-9 protein expression, enhanced the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic protein expression, alleviated the extent of histological damage, myonecrosis, and edema, and maintained the architecture of cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest that BRJ pretreatment mitigates cardiac dysfunction and structural damages by decreasing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in cardiac tissues. These results further support the use of BRJ in traditional medicine against cardiovascular diseases.


Beetroot juice Isoproterenol Oxidative stress Myocardial injury Cardioprotection 



Beetroot juice


Myocardial infarction




Body weight


Lipid peroxidation


Aspartate transaminase


Lactate dehydrogenase


Creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme




Total protein




Superoxide dismutase


Non-protein sulphydydryl group




Nitric oxide


Optical density




Tumor necrosis factor-α






Nuclear factor kappa B



The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through the Research Group Number, RG-1438-081.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declare no conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Raish
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ajaz Ahmad
    • 2
  • Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari
    • 3
  • Khalid M. Alkharfy
    • 2
  • Abdul Ahad
    • 1
  • Altaf Khan
    • 3
  • Naushad Ali
    • 5
  • Majid A. Ganaie
    • 4
  • Mohammed Abbas Ali Hamidaddin
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of PharmaceuticsCollege of Pharmacy, King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department Clinical Pharmacy, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of PharmacyPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAlkharajSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Quality Assurance Unit, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Department Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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