3 Biotech

, 9:91 | Cite as

Na+ and Cl induce differential physiological, biochemical responses and metabolite modulations in vitro in contrasting salt-tolerant soybean genotypes

  • Deepak B. Shelke
  • Ganesh C. Nikalje
  • Mahadev R. Chambhare
  • Balkrishna N. Zaware
  • Suprasanna Penna
  • Tukaram D. NikamEmail author
Original Article


Chloride and sodium constitute as the major ions in most saline soils, contributing to salt-induced damage in plants. Research on salt tolerance has mostly concentrated on the sodium toxicity; however, chloride toxicity also needs to be considered to understand the physiological, biochemical, and metabolite changes under individual and additive salts. In this study, we investigated the effect of individual Na+ and/or Cl ions (equimolar 100 mM NaCl, Na+ and Cl salts) using in vitro cultures of four soybean genotypes with contrasting salt tolerance. In general, all the treatments significantly induced antioxidant enzymes activities such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guaiacol peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and osmolytes including proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugar (TSS). Both individual (Na+, Cl) and additive (NaCl) stresses induced more pronounced activation of antioxidant enzyme machinery and osmolytes accumulation in the tolerant genotypes (MAUS-47 and Bragg). The sensitive genotypes (Gujosoya-2 and SL-295) showed higher accumulation of Na+ and Cl, while the tolerant genotypes were found to maintain a low Na+/K+ and high Ca2+ level in combination with enhanced antioxidant defense and osmotic adjustment. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)-based metabolomic profiling depicted the association of certain metabolites under individualistic and additive salt effects. The genotype-specific metabolic changes indicated probable involvement of azetidine, 2-furanmethanol, 1,4-dioxin, 3-fluorothiophene, decanoic acid and 2-propenoic acid methyl ester in salt-tolerance mechanism of soybean.


Soybean Na-dominant Cl-dominant NaCl stress GC–MS 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the help of National Institute of Soybean Research, Indore, MP, India, for supply of soybean genotypes seeds, and the research facilities available at Department of Botany, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, under the research grants from DST-PURSE, DST-FIST, and UGC DSA-I program of Government of India.

Author contributions

The authors TDN, SP, and BNZ have developed and supervised the research work. The authors DBS, GCN, and MRC have carried out lab experiment, data collection, analysis, and drafting of manuscript. SP and TDN revised the MS.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13205_2019_1599_MOESM1_ESM.docx (614 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 614 KB)


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepak B. Shelke
    • 1
    • 5
  • Ganesh C. Nikalje
    • 2
  • Mahadev R. Chambhare
    • 1
  • Balkrishna N. Zaware
    • 3
  • Suprasanna Penna
    • 4
  • Tukaram D. Nikam
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BotanySavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyR. K. Talreja College of Arts, Science and CommerceUlhasnagarIndia
  3. 3.Department of BotanyBaburaoji Gholap CollegePuneIndia
  4. 4.Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia
  5. 5.Department of BotanyAmruteshwar Arts, Commerce and Science CollegePuneIndia

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