Lipopolysaccharide-induced priming enhances NO-mediated activation of defense responses in pearl millet challenged with Sclerospora graminicola
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicitors isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens UOM SAR 14 effectively induced systemic and durable resistance against pearl millet downy mildew disease caused by the oomycete Sclerospora graminicola. Rapid and increased callose deposition and H2O2 accumulation were evidenced in downy mildew susceptible seeds pre-treated with LPS (SLPS) in comparison with the control seedlings, which also correlated with expression of various other defense responses. Biochemical analysis of enzymes and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data suggested that LPS protects pearl millet against downy mildew through the activation of plant defense mechanisms such as generation of nitric oxide (NO), increased expression, and activities of defense enzymes and proteins. Elevation of NO concentrations was shown to be essential for LPS-mediated defense manifestation in pearl millet and had an impact on the other downstream defense responses like enhanced activation of enzymes and pathogen-related (PR) proteins. Temporal expression analysis of defense enzymes and PR-proteins in SLPS seedlings challenged with the downy mildew pathogen revealed that the activity and expression of peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and the PR-proteins (PR-1 and PR-5) were significantly enhanced compared to untreated control. Higher gene expression and protein activities of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) were observed in SLPS seedlings which were similar to that of the resistant check. Collectively, our results suggest that, in pearl millet-downy mildew interaction, LPS pre-treatment affects defense signaling through the central regulator NO which triggers the activities of PAL, POX, PR-1, PR-5, and HRGPs.
KeywordsPearl millet downy mildew Lipopolysaccharide Induced resistance Nitric oxide Defense enzymes PR-proteins gene expression
LSN, UAC, NRS, and CNS conceived the project. CDM, GVK, TC, SR, and CNS designed the experiments. LSN, UAC, NRS, and CNS carried out the research and analysis of data. LSN, UAC, CDM, and CNS wrote the paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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