Advertisement

3 Biotech

, 8:356 | Cite as

Influence of media supplements on inhibition of oxidative browning and bacterial endophytes of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

  • Karthikeyan Alagarsamy
  • Lubobi Ferdinand Shamala
  • Shu Wei
Protocols and Methods

Abstract

Explant oxidative browning and necrosis of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis is a severe problem in tissue culture, often associated with the exuded phenolic compounds and microbial contamination from the explants. In this study, 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), an inhibitor of the polyphenol production-required enzyme phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and different antibiotics were tested to control tea explant necrosis and browning. These compounds were supplemented in the regular plant growth medium together with 6-benzylaminopurine and thidiazuron at different concentrations. Our data indicated that application of 2 µM of AIP was able to effectively inhibit callus browning, significantly reduce EGC abundance, and greatly improve callus induction and growth. Moreover, the use of 150 mg/L of timentin and 30 mg/L gentamycin resulted in an effective elimination of the surface and endophytic microbes associated with explants of C. sinensis var. sinensis. Our study revealed that the inhibition of PAL using AIP combined with the two tested antibiotics could open up new doors to control oxidative tissue browning and endophyte contamination in tissue culture for tea genetic manipulation.

Keywords

2-Aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP) Bacterial endophytes Phenolic compounds Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant numbers 31070614 and 31370687) and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20123418110002).

Author contributions

KA and LFS conducted the experiments and prepared the manuscript; SW provided critical suggestions over the study and finalized the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Almajano MP, Carbó R, Jiménez JAL, Gordon MH (2008) Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tea infusions. Food Chem 108:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appert C, Zoń J, Amrhein N (2003) Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase by 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid and other phenylalanine analogues. Phytochemistry 62:415–422CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashihara H, Deng WW, Mullen W, Crozier A (2010) Distribution and biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols in Camellia sinensis seedlings and expression of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Phytochemistry 71:559–566CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagheri A, Marashi H, Moshtaghi N, Balandary A (2011) Investigation into seasonal effect and browning inhibitor on callus regeneration of seedless barberry (Berberis vulgaris var. asperma). Plant Tissue Cult Biotechnol 21:161–168Google Scholar
  5. Beckman CH (2000) Phenolic-storing cells: keys to programmed cell death and periderm formation in wilt disease resistance and in general defence responses in plants? Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 57:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Costa JMDWA, Mohotti JA, Madawala AW (2007) Ecophysiology of tea. Braz J Plant Physiol 19:299–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Durner J, Shah J, Klessig DF (1997) Salicylic acid and disease resistance in plants. Trends Plant Sci 2:266–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eden T (1976) Tea. Longman Group Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Enriquez-Obregon GA, Prieto-Samsonov DL, De La Riva GA, Perez M, Selman Housein G, Vazquez-Padron RI (1999) Agrobacterium-mediated japonica rice transformation: a procedure assisted by an antinecrotic treatment. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 59:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Forrest GI (1969) Studies on the polyphenol metabolism of tissue cultures derived from the tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.). Biochem J 113:765–772CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Exp Cell Res 50:151–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Graham HN (1992) Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Prev Med 21:334–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hahlbrock K, Scheel D (1989) Physiology and molecular biology of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40:347–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Han Z-X, Rana MM, Liu G-F, Gao M-J, Li D-X, Wu F-G, Li X-B, Wan X-C, Wei S (2016) Green tea flavour determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes. Food Chem 212:739–748CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Harler CR (1964) The culture and marketing of tea. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Janovitz-Klapp AH, Richard FC, Goupy PM, Nicolas JJ (1990) Kinetic studies on apple polyphenol oxidase. J Agric Food Chem 38(7):1437–1441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jones AMP, Saxena PK (2013) Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture. PLoS ONE 8(10):e76802.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076802 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Karthikeyan A, Karutha Pandian S, Ramesh M (2011) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf base derived callus tissues of popular indica rice (Oryza sativa L. sub sp. indica cv. ADT 43). Plant Sci 181:258–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ke D, Saltveit ME (1989) Wound-induced ethylene production, phenolic metabolism and susceptibility to russet spotting in iceberg lettuce. Physiol Plant 76:412–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kerio LC, Wachira FN, Wanyoko JK, Rotich MK (2013) Total polyphenols, catechin profiles and antioxidant activity of tea products from purple leaf coloured tea cultivars. Food Chem 136:1405–1413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Krishna H, Sairam RK, Singh SK, Patel VB, Sharma RR et al (2008) Mango explant browning: effect of ontogenic age, mycorrhization and pre-treatments. Sci Hortic 118:132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar N, Gulati A, Bhattacharya A (2013) l-Glutamine and l-glutamic acid facilitate successful Agrobacterium infection of recalcitrant tea cultivars. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 170:1649–1664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. McEvily AJ, Iyengar R, Gross AT (1992) Inhibition of polyphenol oxidase by phenolic compounds. In: Ho C-T, Lee CY, Huang M-T (eds) Phenolic compounds in food and their effects on health I. ACS symposium series, vol 506. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 318–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mondal TK, Bhattacharya A, Sood A, Ahuja PS (1998) Micropropagation of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) using thidiazuron. Plant Growth Regul 26:57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio-assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nybakken L, Keski-Saari S, Falck MA, Julkunen-Tiitto R (2007) Restoration of secondary metabolism in birch seedlings relieved from PAL-inhibitor. Trees Struct Funct 21:273–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Oh M-M, Trick HN, Rajashekar CB (2009) Secondary metabolism and antioxidants are involved in environmental adaptation and stress tolerance in lettuce. J Plant Physiol 166:180–191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Olhoft PM, Somers DA (2001) l-Cysteine increases Agrobacterium-mediated TDNA delivery into soybean cotyledonary-node cells. Plant Cell Rep 20:706–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Osman MG, Elhadi EA, Khalafalla MM (2010) Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, C.V. Omdurman) induced by thidiazuron. Afr J Biotechnol 9:4407–4413Google Scholar
  30. Panaia M, Senaratna T, Bunn E, Dixon KW, Sivasithamparam K (2000) Micropropagation of the critically endangered Western Australian species, Symonanthus bancroftii (F Muell.) L. Haegi (Solanaceae). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 63:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parthasarathy VA, Keshavachandran R, Nazeem P, Girija D, John PS et al (2007) High tech propagation of horticultural crops-accent on recalcitrance. In: Recent trends in horticultural biotechnology, vols I and II. ICAE national symposium on biotechnological interventions for improvement of horticultural crops: issues and strategies. New India Publishing Agency, Vellanikkara, pp 85–91Google Scholar
  32. Peiser G, Lo´pez-Ga´lvez G, Cantwell M, Saltveit ME (1998) Phenylalanine ammonia lyase inhibitors control browning of cut lettuce. Postharvest Biol Technol 14:171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rana MM, Han ZH, Song DP, Liu GF, Li DX, Wan XC, Karthikeyan A, Wei S (2016) Effect of medium supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root induction from the callus tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis. Int J Mol Sci 17:1132–1149CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Sapers GM, Hicks KB (1989) Inhibition of enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables. In: Jen JJ (ed) Quality factors of fruits and vegetables: chemistry and technology. ACS symposium series, vol 405. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sarathchandra TM, Upali PD, Wijewardena RGA (1988) Studies on the tissue culture of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) 4 somatic embryogenesis in stem and leaf callus cultures. Sri Lanka J Tea Sci 57:50–54Google Scholar
  36. Tamagnone L, Merida A, Stacey N, Plaskitt K, Parr A et al (1998) Inhibition of phenolic acid metabolism results in precocious cell death and altered cell morphology in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants. Plant Cell 10:1801–1816CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Tanprasert P, Reed BM (1997) Determination of minimal bactericidal and effective antibiotic treatment concentrations for bacterial contaminants from micropropagated strawberries. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 33:227–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Teklemariam TA, Blake TJ (2004) Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase induced freezing tolerance in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings treated with low, ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation. Physiol Plant 122:244–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tomás-Barberán FA, Gil MI, Castañer M, Artés F, Saltveit ME (1997) Effect of selected browning inhibitors on phenolic metabolism in stem tissue of harvested lettuce. J Agric Food Chem 45:583–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Verberne MC, Mulijono RAB, Verpoorte R (1999) Salicylic acid biosynthesis. In: Hooykaas PPJ, Hall MA, Libbenga KR (eds) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plant hormones. Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, pp 295–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang L, Yan X, Guo X, Zhang R, Mei Y, Wei C (2016) Diversity of endophytic microorganisms in Zijuan and Yunkang 10 of Camellia sinensis. J Anhui Agric Univ 43:1–6Google Scholar
  42. Xu K (2013) An overview of Arctic apples: basic facts and characteristics. N Y Fruit Q 21:8–10Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and UtilizationAnhui Agricultural UniversityHefeiChina

Personalised recommendations