Advertisement

3 Biotech

, 8:309 | Cite as

Plants in traditional medicine with special reference to Cyperus rotundus L.: a review

  • Arunagiri Kamala
  • Sushil Kumar Middha
  • Chandrakant S. Karigar
Review Article

Abstract

The nutgrass, Cyperus rotundus L. (Family: Cyperaceae), is a colonial, perennial herb considered to have originated in India 2000 years ago and widely used in Ayurveda to treat several ailments. In addition to its prehistoric uses, it is used in several systems of medicine for treating variety of diseases. The synergistic actions of the Cyperus’ compounds have added advantage over that of a single constituent. In the past decade, numerous studies proved analgesic, anti-allergic, anti-arthritic, anti-candida, anti-cariogenic, anti-convulsant, anti-diarrheal, anti-emetic, anti-helminthic, anti-histamine, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, anti-obesity, antioxidant, anti-platelet, anti-pyretic, anti-ulcer, anti-viral, cardioprotective, cytoprotective, cytotoxic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, ovicidal, and larvicidal, wound healing and inhibition of brain Na+ K+ ATPase activities of C. rotundus and its chemical constituents. However, the exact the mechanism of action is not very clear and requires further evaluation. These properties strongly suggest an extensive use of C. rotundus for clinical applications. In this review, we attempted to provide information about the pharmacological effects of Cyperus and its proposed mechanisms of actions.

Keywords

Ayurveda Nutgrass Pharmacological activity Secondary metabolites Traditional medicine 

Abbreviations

WHO

World Health Organization

C. rotundus L

Cyperus rotundus L

bw

Body weight

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13205_2018_1328_MOESM1_ESM.docx (289 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 288 KB)

References

  1. Athesh K, Divakar M, Brindha P (2014) Anti-obesity potential of Cyperus rotundus L. aqueous extract in rats fed on high fat cafeteria diet. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 7:88–92Google Scholar
  2. Ballabh B, Chaurasia OP (2007) Traditional medicinal plants of cold desert Ladakh-used in treatment of cold, cough and fever. J Ethnopharmacol 112:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biradar S, Kangralkar VA, Mandavkar Y, Thakur M, Chougule N (2010) Anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, analgesic and anticonvulsant activity of Cyperus essential oils. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2:112–115Google Scholar
  4. Chen Y, Zhao YY, Wang XY, Liu JT, Huang LQ, Peng CS (2011) GC–MS analysis and analgesic activity of essential oil from fresh rhizome of Cyperus rotundus. Zhong Yao Cai 34:1225–1229Google Scholar
  5. Chithran A, Ramesh Babu T, Himaja N (2012) Comparative study on anti-inflammatory activity of Cyperus rotundus (L.) using different solvent system in carragenan induced paw edema in albino wistar rats. Int J Phytopharmacol 3:130–134Google Scholar
  6. Cordell GA (2002) Natural products in drug discovery-creating a new vision. Phytochem Rev 1:261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dang GK, Parekar RR, Kamat SK, Scindia AM, Rege NN (2011) Anti inflammatory activity of Phyllanthus emblica, Plumbago zeylanica and Cyperus rotundus in acute models of inflammation. Phytother Res 25:904–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daswani PG, Brijesh S, Tetali P, Birdi TJ (2011) Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea. Indian J Pharmacol 43:340–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duarte MC, Figueira GM, Sartoratto A, Rehder VL, Delarmelina C (2005) Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 97:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Farnsworth NR, Akerele O, Bingel AS, Soejarto DD, Guo Z (1985) Medicinal plants in therapy. Bull World Health Organ 63(6):965–981Google Scholar
  11. Govaerts SR, David S (2007) World checklist of Cyperaceae, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.kew.org/wcsp/monocots/Jan. Accessed 12 Jan 2018
  12. Gupta MB, Palit TK, Singh N, Bhargava KP (1971) Pharmacological studies to isolate the active constituents from Cyperus rotundus possessing anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic activities. Indian J Med Res 59:76–82Google Scholar
  13. Harborne JB, Williams CA, Wilson KL (1982) Flavonoids in leaves and inflorescences of Australian Cyperus species. Phytochemistry 21:2491–2507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jahan N, Rahman KU, Ali S (2012) Cardioprotective and antilipidemic potential of Cyperus rotundus in chemically induced cardiotoxicity. Int J Agric Biol 14:989–992Google Scholar
  15. Jin JH, Lee DU, Kim YS, Kim HP (2011) Anti-allergic activity of sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus. Arch Pharm Res 34:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kakarla L, Katragadda SB, Tiwari AK, Kotamraju KS, Madhusudana K, Kumar DA, Botlagunta M (2016) Free radical scavenging, α-glucosidase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory constituents from Indian sedges, Cyperus scariosus R. Br and Cyperus rotundus L. Pharmacogn Mag 12(Suppl S4):488–496Google Scholar
  17. Kamala A, Middha SK, Sindhura SK, Gopinath C, Karigar CS (2018) In-vitro antioxidant potentials of Cyperus rotundus Linn rhizome extracts and their phytochemical analysis. Pharmacogn Mag 14:261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kapadia VH, Naik VG, Wadia MS, Dev S (1967) Sesquiterpenoids from essential oil of Cyperus rotundus. Tetrahedron Lett 8:4661–4667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kasala S, Ramanjaneyulu K, Himabindhu J, Alluri R, Babu RR (2016) Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Cyperus rotundus (L). J Pharmacogn Phytochem 5:407–409Google Scholar
  20. Kaushik NK, Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Mohanakrishnan D, Kamaraj C, Elango G, Zahir AA, Sahal D (2013) Antiplasmodial potential of selected medicinal plants from eastern Ghats of South India. Exp Parasitol 134:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kempraj V, Bhat SK (2008) Ovicidal and larvicidal activities of Cyperus giganteus Vahl and Cyperus rotundus Linn. essential oils against Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Nat Prod Radiance 7:416–419Google Scholar
  22. Kilani S, Ledauphin J, Bouhlel I, Ben Sghaier M, Boubaker J, Skandrani I, Chekir-Ghedira L (2008) Comparative study of Cyperus rotundus essential oil by a modified GC/MS analysis method. Evaluation of its antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic effects. Chem Biodivers 5:729–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kumar KH, Khanum F (2013) Hydro-alcoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus ameliorates H2O2-induced human neuronal cell damage via its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic machinery. Cell Mol Neurobiol 33:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar HK, Tamatam A, Pal A, Khanum F (2013) Neuroprotective effects of Cyperus rotundus on SIN-1 induced nitric oxide generation and protein nitration: ameliorative effect against apoptosis mediated neuronal cell damage. Neurotoxicology 34:150–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kumar HK, Razack S, Nallamuthu I, Khanum F (2014) Phytochemical analysis and biological properties of Cyperus rotundus L. Ind Crops Prod 52:815–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lydia J, Sudarsanam D (2014) Docking of a Cyperus rotundus compound ‘15-Hydroxy-4-oxo-10-pentadecynoic acid lactone’ with antidiabetic drug targets: a comparative study. Int J Fund Appl Sci 3:17–22Google Scholar
  27. Mannarreddy P, Denis M, Munireddy D, Pandurangan R, Thangavelu KP, Venkatesan K (2017) Cytotoxic effect of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract on human cancer cell lines. Biomed Pharmacother 95:1375–1387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mansoor A, Ahmad AB, Rehman N, Jahan SA (2013) Hypotensive, spasmolytic and spasmogenic effect of Cyperus rotundus crude extract and its fractions. Int J Pharm 3:482–489Google Scholar
  29. Middha SK, Goyal AK, Faizan SA, Sanghamitra B, Basistha BC, Usha T (2013) In silico-based combinatorial pharmacophore modelling and docking studies of GSK-3β and GK inhibitors of Hippophae. J Biosci 38(4):805–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Middha SK, Goyal AK, Bhardwaj A, Kamal R, Lokesh P, Prashanth HP, Wadwa G, Usha T (2016) In silico exploration of cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of natural compounds found in Myrica nagi using LC–MS. Symbiosis 70:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mohammad A, Nagarajaiah BH, Kudagi BL (2012) Experimental evaluation of antiulcer activity of Cyperus rotundus. Asian J Biochem Pharm Res 2:261–268Google Scholar
  32. Muhammet E, Guldur A, Ibrahim OH, Kilic O, Sogut M, Ozaslan M, Yalcin BM, Musa D (2010) Gastroprotective effect of Cyperus rotundus extract against gastric mucosal injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Int J Pharmacol 6:104–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nadkarni KM (1976) Indian materia medica, 3rd edn. Popular Prakashan Publications. Ltd., Bombay, pp 1–968Google Scholar
  34. Ngamrojanavanish N, Manaki S, Pornpakakul S (2006) Inhibitory activity of selected Thai medicinal plants on Na+/K+-ATP-ase. Fitoterapia 77:481–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nima ZA, Jabier MS, Wagi RI, Hussain HAA (2008) Extraction, identification and antibacterial activity of Cyperus oil from Iraqi C rotundus. Eng Technol 26:1156Google Scholar
  36. Pal DK, Dutta S (2006) Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the roots and rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L. Ind J Pharm Sci 68:256–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Peerzada AM, Ali HH, Naeem M, Latif M, Bukhari AH, Tanveer A (2015) Cyperus rotundus L. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities. J Ethnopharmacol 174:540–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Puratchikody A, Nithya Devi C, Nagalakshmi G (2006) Wound healing activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Ind J Pharm Sci 68:97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ramawat KG (2007) Secondary metabolites in nature. In: Ramawat KG, Merillon JM (eds) Biotechnology: secondary metabolites. Science Publishers, Enfield, CT, pp 21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Raut NA, Gaikwad NJ (2012) Antidiabetic potential of fractions of hydro-ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae). Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 3:1014–1019Google Scholar
  41. Sangeetha DP, Banumathi V, Ganthimathi S, Shameem FR (2014) Anti-histamine activity of Amirtha sanjeevi kuligai (pill). Int J Ayurveda Pharma Res 2:22–26Google Scholar
  42. Seo WG, Pae HO, Oh GS et al (2001) Inhibitory effects of methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes on nitric oxide and superoxide productions by murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. J Ethnopharmacol 76:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Seo EJ, Lee DU, Kwak JH, Lee SM, Kim YS, Jung YS (2011) Antiplatelet effects of Cyperus rotundus and its component (+)-nootkatone. J Ethnopharmacol 135:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sharma SK, Singh AP (2011) Antimicrobial investigations on rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Der Pharma Lett 3:427–431Google Scholar
  45. Shinde S, Phadke S, Bhagwat AW (1988) Effect of Nagarmotha (Cyperus rotundus linn) on reserpine-induced emesis in pigeons. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 32:229–230Google Scholar
  46. Shivakumar SI, Shivakumar B, Suresh HM, Hallikeri CS, Hatapakki BC, Handiganur JS, Sankh K (2009) Anticonvulsant effect of Cyperus rotundus Linn rhizomes in rats. J Nat Remedies 9:192–196Google Scholar
  47. Singh N, Pandey BR, Verma P, Bhalla M, Gilca M (2012) Phyto- pharmacotherapeutics of Cyperus rotundus Linn (Motha): an overview. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 3(4):467–476Google Scholar
  48. Sivapalan SR, Jeyadevan P (2012) Physico-chemical and phyto-chemical study of rhizome of Cyperus rotundus linn. Int J Pharmacol Pharm Technol 1(2):42–46Google Scholar
  49. Soltan MM, Zaki AK (2009) Antiviral screening of forty-two Egyptian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 126:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sonwa MM, Konig WA (2001) Chemical study of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus. Phytochem 58:799–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Suresh Kumar SV, Mishra SH (2005) Hepatoprotective activity of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Linn against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Ind J Pharm Sci 67(1):84–88Google Scholar
  52. Thebtaranonth C, Thebtaranonth Y, Wanauppathamkul S, Yuthavong Y (1995) Antimalarial sesquiterpenes from tubers of Cyperus rotundus: structure of 10, 12 peroxycalamenene, a sesquiterpene endoperoxide. Phytochemistry 40:125–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tran HHT, Nguyen MC, Le HT, Nguyen TL, Pham TB, Chau VM (2014) Inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase from Cyperus rotundus. J Pharm Biol 52: 74–77Google Scholar
  54. Trivedi B, Motl O, Herout V, Sorm F (1984) Composition of the oil from Cyperus rotundus: structure of patchoulenone. Collect Czech Chem Commun 29:1675–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tsoyi K, Jang HJ, Lee YS et al (2011) (+)-Nootkatone and (+)-valencene from rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus increase survival rates in septic mice due to heme oxygenase-1 induction. J Ethnopharmacol 137:1311–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Uddin SJ, Mondal K, Shilpi JA, Rahnan MT (2006) Antidiarrhoeal activity of Cyperus rotundus. Fitoterapia 77:134–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Umerie SC, Ezeuzo HO (2000) Physicochemical characterization and utilization of Cyperus rotundus starch. Bioresour Technol 72:193–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Usha T, Middha SK, Bhattacharya M, Lokesh P, Goyal AK (2014) Rosmarinic acid, a new polyphenol from Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. leaf: a probable compound for its anti-inflammatory activity antioxidants 3(4):830–842Google Scholar
  59. Usha T, Middha SK, Narzary D, Brahma BK, Goyal AK (2017) In silico and in-vivo based scientific evaluation of traditional anti-diabetic herb Hodgsonia heteroclita fruit pulp used by Bodo tribe in india. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 12(2):165–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Usha T, Goyal AK, Narzary D, Prakash L, Wadhwa G, Babu D, Shanmugarajan D, Middha SK (2018) Identification of bioactive glucose-lowering compounds of methanolic extract of Hodgsonia heteroclita fruit pulp Frontiers In Bioscience. Landmark 23:875–888Google Scholar
  61. Weenen H, Nkunya MH, Bray DH, Mwasumbi LB, Kinabo LS, Kilimali VA (1990) Antimalarial activity of Tanzanian medicinal plants. Planta Med 56:368–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. WHO/EDM/TRM/2000.1 (2000) General guidelines for methodologies on research and evaluation of traditional medicine, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/66783/WHO_EDM_TRM_2000.1.pdf?sequence=1
  63. Williamson EM (ed) (2002) Major herbs of ayurveda. Churchill-Livingstone, LondonGoogle Scholar
  64. Yu J, Lei G, Cai L, Zou Y (2004) Chemical composition of C. rotundus extract. J Phytochem 65:881–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yu HH, Lee DH, Seo SJ, You YO (2007) Anticariogenic properties of the extract of Cyperus rotundus. Am J Chin Med 35:497–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zhou Z, Yin W (2012) Two novel phenolic compounds from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus L. Molecules 17:12636–12641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhu M, Luk HH, Fung HS, Luk CT (1997) Cytoprotective effects of Cyperus rotundus against ethanol induced gastric ulceration in rats. Phytother Res 11:392–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arunagiri Kamala
    • 1
  • Sushil Kumar Middha
    • 2
  • Chandrakant S. Karigar
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Studies and Research in BiochemistryTumkur UniversityTumkurIndia
  2. 2.DBT-BIF Facility, Department of BiotechnologyMaharani Lakshmi Ammanni College for WomenBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryBangalore UniversityBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations